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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Period 5 Full Review
Terms in this set (82)
American slave owners revolted against the Mexican government when they banned slavery. This created disputes over the land's ownership.
-Became part of the United states after the Mexican War
-People rushed here when gold was discovered in 1849
-Its people wanted to be a free state, came into union in 1850
President James K Polk
He was the Democratic candidate in the election of 1844 and the 11th president of the United States. He was responsible for a successful war with Mexico which resulted in annexing much of western lands like Texas and Mexican territory
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million to Mexico for land.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people. Kansas and Nebraska voted to be slave or free.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Gold Rush of 1849
Mass migration to California following the discovery of gold in 1848
The Mormons moved west to escape religious persecution, they settled in Missouri and Illinois but were later persecuted by their neighbors ; decided to move Northwest towards the Great Salt Lake.
a settler granted a homestead(free land) by the United States government
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
new settlers were claiming the land in the west, native americans were to move to reservations
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, or Northern Europe
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
Whigs and Democrats Differences
Role and powers of the federal government, National Bank, tariffs, federally funded internal improvements (Think Henry Clay's American System)
Each region of the country had different opinions on the sale of public lands in the West, federal spending on internal improvements (roads, canals), and rising tariffs.
cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.
the movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
Harriet Beecher Stowe's widely read novel that dramatized the horrors of slavery. It heightened Northern support for abolition and escalated the sectional conflict.
John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
(1859) John Brown led a raid on Harper's Ferry. He hoped to start a rebellion against slaveholders by arming enslaved African Americans. Brown was quickly defeated by citizens and federal troops. Brown became a villain to southerners who now thought northerners would use violence to end slavery as well as a martyr to some northerners who saw Brown as someone who sacrificed himself for the ideal of freedom for all.
The Impending Crisis of the South
A book written by Hinton Helper. Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used this book to try to prove that non-slave owning whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. The non-aristocrat from N.C. had to go to the North to find a publisher that would publish his book.
A system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North. A reminder that Enslaved people fought back against slavery
Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Slavery Expansion Debate
Should new states coming into the American Union be Free or Slave States. Compromises centered around keeping the balance between these states even in Congress.
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not viewed as citizens but as property. Causes tension due to slavery being allowed in "free" states by the federal government.
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Senator Sumner Canning
attacked by Representative Brook after his speech in favor of the free-soil constitution in Kansas
Birth of the Republican Party
began in the 1850s, dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories, but they championed a wider range of issues, including the further development of national roads, more liberal land distribution in the West, and increased protective tariffs. Comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate. Direct leading to Lincoln being elected President
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Lincoln's use of executive power
Abuses- summoned troops and authorized spending without approval of Congress. Also, suspended habeas corpus
Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus
President Lincoln's use of Emergency powers in the war included his he suspended the right of accused spies in the Capitol to go before a judge and be informed of the charges against them and bail set.
Civil War Draft
1863-The North was having trouble getting people to volunteer for the army. So they passed a law to create a lottery to pick men and force them to fight. Rich people could pay to avoid the draft.
Civil War Northern Advantages
The North had more resources - troops, food, railroads to transport supplies and troops. The North had more farms to supply the troops and 90 percent of the manufacturing was in the North. The North had 21,000 miles of railroad track. Most of the nation's gold was in northern banks. Abraham Lincoln was also a major advantage of the North. He never wavered in his determination to preserve the Union.
Civil War Results
The Confederacy and Union suffered as a result of the war, including inflation, conscription, and class tensions. South could not manage to unite.
goal was to defend themselves. Advantages: skilled military leaders, potential allies (France & GB), Southern Lifestyle (hunting/riding)
- weak motivation - not fighting for a cause, or at least one they could understand
- officers not aggressive enough - many failed to press their enemy when they had the
- fighting on unfamiliar territory - most Northerners had never been in the South, poor
communication, and long supply lines hampered the North
- believed the war would be over quickly
few soldiers + supplies, no navy or industry
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
States between the North and South that were technically slave states, but did NOT leave the Union
Battle of Antietam (1862)
Single bloodiest day of the American Civil War; Union victory that turned back a Confederate invasion of the North.
Allowed Lincoln to issue the
proclaiming the freedom of slaves in the ten states then in rebellion and shifting the war objectives of the North.
Proclamation issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in Confederate States. Changed the purpose of the war into fighting for the issue of freedom
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolition of slavery: Slavery is not allowed in any state or territory
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
Sherman's March to the Sea
during the civil war, a devastating total war military campaign, led by union general William Tecumseh Sherman, that involved marching 60,000 union troops through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah and destroying everything along the way.
Battle of Gettysburg (1863)
Largest and bloodiest battle of the American Civil War; Union victory; considered - when coupled with
General Ulysses S. Grant
's victory in Vicksburg the next day - to be the turning point of the war.
Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war.
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Lincoln's Assassination (1865)
Killed days after the war ended by a southern extremest hoping to restart the war. Andrew Johnson, the vice president, succeeded the presidential seat.
Women in the Civil War
Southern and northern women stepped up to work while the men were off fighting the war: operating farms/plantations, factory jobs. Critical roles such as military nurses and volunteers in soldiers' aid societies. Many women disguised as men to join before they were allowed.
It grew and prospered during the civil war, and replaced Southern agriculture as the principle activity of this country
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
A series of laws that promoted the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US. First time people could travel across America and allowed better communication and connection in America.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Lincoln's 10% Plan
*Lincoln believed that seceded states should be restored to that Union quickly and easily, with "malice toward none, with charity for all."
*Lincoln's "10% Plan" allowed Southerners, excluding high-ranking confederate officers and military leaders, to take an oath promising future loyalty to the Union and an end to slavery
*When 10 percent of those registered to vote in 1860 took the oath, a loyal state government could be formed
*This plan was not accepted by Congress
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction that required 50% of a state's 1860 voters to take an "iron clad" oath of allegiance and a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials; rejected by Lincoln.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Necessary requirements for the former Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
Required former Confederate states to ratify the 13th amendment before they could rejoin the union
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
1868, Tenure of Office act created to freeze radical spy Secretary of War Stanton in the cabinet, Johnson dismissed him, House voted impeachment for high crimes and misdemeanors, Senate voted not guilty by 1 vote
Civil Rights of 1866
law that established federal guarantees of civil rights for all citizens
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
14th Amendment (1868)
Citizenship to everyone born in the U.S.
15th Amendment (1870)
U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed
Election of 1868
The winner of the Election of 1868 was Ulysses S. Grant who won because of the impeachment controversy of Johnson made him very unpopular. He supported radical reconstruction.
Considering his military success in the Civil War, his nomination for president by the Republican Party in 1868 seemed almost inevitable. On matters of Reconstruction, he supported the efforts of the Radical Republicans to enfranchise African Americans and spoke out for the need to control secret societies known as the Ku Klux Klan in the South. Shortly after he was reelected in 1872, the nation sank into a deep depression, and corruption scandals began to plague the administration.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
End of Reconstruction
Election of 1876 brought the Radical Republicans a loss of power and Northerners were tired of Reconstruction and wanted to forget the Civil War.
The Compromise of 1877
Democrats and Republicans agreed that a republican would be president and the withdrawal of federal troops from the South. This resulted in the abandonment of black rights in the South, protections for African Americans, and reconstruction was ended.
Amnesty Act of 1872
gave forgiveness to former Confederates and Whites in the South and allowed them to vote again
Failure of Reconstruction
High cost of programs, racial hostility (got worse after civil war) violence in South (KKK), failed to protect the rights of freedmen, Southern social structure was unchanged, Rich whites stayed rich, poor whites stayed poor
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