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Arts and Humanities
HSP - CH 13
Terms in this set (44)
section that is important for language perception and production
section involved in speech perception
Ventral pathway (green)
channel responsible for speech recognition
dorsal pathway (red)
channel that links acoustic signal and movement
pattern of frequencies and intensities of the sound stimulus
structure involved in speech production, such as the tongue, lips, teeth, jaw, and soft palate
horizontal band of energy in the speech spectrogram associated with vowels
plot showing the pattern of intensities and frequencies of a speech stimulus
manner of articulation
how a speech sound is produced by interaction of the articulators during sound production
place of articulation
in speech production, the location of enunciation
shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word
lack of invariance
idea that there is no simple relationship between a particular phoneme and the acoustic signal
overlapping enunciation that occurs when different phonemes follow one another in speech
occurrence when stimuli along a continuum are perceived as divided into discrete categories
voice onset time (VOT)
time delay between the beginning of a sound and the beginning of vocal chord vibration
voice onset time when perception changes from one speech category to another
involvement of a number of different senses in determining perception
audiovisual speech perception
perception of speech that is affected by both auditory and visual stimulation
phonemic restoration effect
effect when listeners perceive a phoneme although the acoustic signal is obscured by another sound
listeners' repetition aloud of what they hear as they are hearing it
process of perceiving individual words from the continuous flow of the speech signal
in language, the chances that one sound will follow another sound
process of learning about transitional probabilities and other characteristics of the environment
division of speech signal into different frequency bands, then addition of noise to each band
difficulty in speaking or understanding speech due to brain damage
language impairment including labored and stilted speech and short sentences
inability to comprehend words or arrange sounds into coherent speech
inability to recognize words, even though the ability to hear pure tones remains intact
neuron in the temporal lobe with strongest response to same-species voices
dual-stream model of speech perception
theory that the dorsal pathway links acoustic signal to movements used to produce speech
cue associated with how a phoneme is produced by the articulators
motor theory of speech perception
argument that a link exists between how speech is perceived and how it is produced
social gating hypothesis
theory that the social brain "gates" mechanisms that are responsible for language learning
When a speech sound is removed from an audio recording, and is replaced by an extraneous sound, listeners report:
a.Hearing the sentence as intact
Charles is learning the anatomy of the structures in the vocal apparatus, including the soft palate, tongue, lips, teeth, and jaw. Together, these structures are called the _____.
Mary is teaching children vowel sounds by having them repeat them over and over again. As a speech teacher, Mary knows the specific sounds of each vowel are created by changing the overall shape of the vocal tract. This change in shape modifies the resonant frequency of the vocal tract and produces peaks of pressure at a number of different frequencies. The frequencies at which the peaks occur are called _____.
What are /p/, /i/, and /t/ in the word pit known as?
The fact that we perceive the sound of a phoneme as the same even though the acoustic signal is changed by coarticulation is an example of _____.
a. perceptual constancy
Lea and Heather are in a noisy restaurant. Lea looks intently at Heather's lips to help her understand what Heather is saying because the restaurant is so loud. What is this called?
b. audiovisual speech perception
Maryl has a terrible cold and is coughing a lot. Her roommate, however, is still able to understand what Maryl is saying, even when Maryl's coughs result in the omission of word sounds. This illustrates the _____ effect.
c. phonemic restoration
Kevin is testing the hearing of children. He presents sentences to subjects through earphones and asks them to repeat aloud what they are hearing. What technique is Kevin using?
Kristin is trying to learn Spanish. She listens to recordings of native speakers and has difficulties hearing the individual words. Instead, the words sound like an unbroken string to her. Kristin is having difficulty with _____.
c. speech segmentation
Dr. Long is researching the ability of infants to learn about certain characteristics of a language, such as the chances that one sound will follow another sound. What process is Dr. Long researching in these infants?
d. statistical learning
John has had a stroke. His speech is now labored and stilted and he can only speak in short sentences. He can comprehend what others are saying. What is the term for John's condition?
a. Broca's aphasia
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