Tips for Learning the Ions
"FROM THE TABLE"
These are ions that can be organized into 2 groups.
1. Their place of the periodic table suggests the charge on the ion, since the neutral atom gains or loses a predictable number of electrons in order to obtain a noble gas configuration.
2. Notice that cations keep their name (sodium ion) while anions have an "-ide" suffix (chloride ion)
3. Metals that can form more than one ion will have their positive charge denoted by a roman numeral in parenthesis immediately next to the name
1. "-ate" anions have +1 Oxygen then the "-ite" ion, but the same charge. Eg: Sulfate is SO4 2-, Sulfite is SO3 2-
2. One can derive the formula for a hydrogen sulfate ion by adding a hydrogen ion in front of a sulfate ion. Since a hydrogen ion has a 1+ charge, the net charge on the new ion is less negative by one.
3. Learn the hypochlorite → chlorite → chlorate → perchlorate series, in addition to theseries containing iodite/iodate as well as bromite/bromate.
a) "hypo-" means "under"/"too little." Eg: Hypochlorite has -1 oxygen than chlorite.
b) "hyper-" means "above"/"too much." Eg: Perchlorate has +1 oxygen than chlorate.