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SHS 311 2b Exam Review
Terms in this set (66)
Which type of afferent auditory nerve fibers are myelinated?
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 1)
The release of glutamate makes the neuron slightly more positive from the original resting potential of -70 mV
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 2)
A criterion threshold of -55 threshold is reached, and an action potential is triggered.
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 3)
The change in neuron voltage triggers the opening of Na+ ion channels, and Na+ enters the neuron through a concentration
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 4)
The neuron depolarizes
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 5)
Equal concentrations of Na+ are reached inside and outside the neuron so Na+ channels close.Voltage gated K+ channels open
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 6)
The neuron repolarizes, and actually hyperpolarizes into a refraction period
Match to put the steps of the action potential in order (Step 7)
The nueron returns to its' resting state
Which efferent pathway would we consider the strongest?
There are three auditory fiber types below that have been discussed in class. What is the relationship between the spontaneous rate of the fiber and the threshold of the fiber?
High spontaneous rate fibers have lower thresholds
We have a phase-locked auditory nerve response to a 200 Hz tone. Which of the following integer multiples could we expect to a spike at?
Isointensity curves demonstrate that when considering the response characteristics of auditory nerve fibers, as levels increase, the range of frequency responses will:
The two major components to the balance system are the ________________ sytem and the _____________.
In the utricle and saccule, the hair cells are contained between two different structures. The base structure is called the _______________ and the upper structure is called the ________________.
Macula, otolithic membrane
Match the semicircular canals that serve as excitatory/inhibitory partner canals to one another: Right Anterior
Match the semicircular canals that serve as excitatory/inhibitory partner canals to one another: Left Anterior
Match the semicircular canals that serve as excitatory/inhibitory partner canals to one another: Right Horizontal
In the semicircular canals, the hair cells are contained between two different structures within the ampulla. The base structure is called the ________________ and the upper structure is called the ________________.
Crista ampullaris, cupula
Which of the following best describes the connection between the vestibular system and the eyes?
Afferent fibers from the semicircular canals connect to the motor neurons of the extraocular eye muscles via the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem
What word describes repetitive, rapid, and uncontrolled eye movements?
What is the difference between linear and angular acceleration?
Linear acceleration does not involve a change in direction, and angular acceleration does involve a change in direction.
The auditory cortex is located in the [blank1] lobe of the brain.
Label which portion of the ascending auditory pathway each structure is contained within: Cochlear nucleus
Label which portion of the ascending auditory pathway each structure is contained within: Superior Olivary Complex
Label which portion of the ascending auditory pathway each structure is contained within: Inferior Colliculus
Label which portion of the ascending auditory pathway each structure is contained within: Medial Geniculate Body
All auditory nerve fibers have the same discharge rate.
Isointensity curves get wider with increasing level.
Phase locking works best at very high frequencies.
Auditory nerve tuning curves are steepest on the high-frequency side.
What brain lobe is the auditory system in?
Tonotopic organization is present in the central auditory nervous system.
In Central Auditory Processing Disorder, listeners will have difficulty with understand speech in noise.
In the central auditory nervous system, fibers do not crossover and decussate from one side of the brain to another.
Nystagmus is an indicator that something is wrong in the peripheral or central nervous system.
Have you heard of the vestibular system before this class?
What structures detect angular acceleration?
What structures detect linear acceleration?
Nuclei in order: #1
Uncrossed medial olivary complex (MOC)
Nuclei in order: #2
Uncrossed lateral olivary complex (LOC)
Nuclei in order: #3
Nuclei in order: #4
Increase positivity of the cell
Increase the negativity of the cell
Spontaneous discharge rate
Rate of firing without sound being present
AN fibers can be categorized into 3 different categories what are the three categories?: #1
Low (<0.5 spikes/sec)
AN fibers can be categorized into 3 different categories what are the three categories?: #2
Medium (0.5-18 spikes/sec)
AN fibers can be categorized into 3 different categories what are the three categories?: #3
High (>18 spikes/sec)
Threshold of an AN fiber
Minimum difference between sounds that can just be discriminated.
What was the effect of increasing level on iso-intensity curves?
Isointensity curves get wider with increasing level
What are the different parameters of a tuning curve?
Shallow low frequency tail, steep high frequency roll off, bandwidth, and characteristic frequency
How do you read a post-stimulus time histogram from a single nerve fiber?
Tells use the probability of firingY-Axis is firing rate in spike/secX-axis is time axis and the time of sound being turned on/off
Why is phase-locking needed?
Auditory system is very good at following the time wave form of a stimulus. We can tell the different rhythms of waves is because our brain can track individual timing of events.
What frequencies is phase-locking needed for?
Frequencies below 4-5 kHz
What is the relationship between the frequency of the pure tone and the phase locking intervals?
The result of this is that there are a bunch of neurons firing near the peak of each and every cycle of a pure tone.
What kind of graph/figure can be used to evaluate a pahse-locked response?
An interval-spiked histogram
There are two efferent pathways. what are they?
Medial and Lateral
Are there crossed pathways, uncrossed, or both?
Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Deficits in the processing of auditory information
Auditory Brainstem Response
An evoked potential with origins from CNVII to the inferior colliculus
What are the two main components to the balance system?
Sensory and motor component
semicircular canals type of acceleration
angular acceleration in appropriate plane
Utricle type of acceleration
Saccule type of acceleration
What are two nuclei we discussed as having specific functions: #1
SOC for sound localization
What are two nuclei we discussed as having specific functions: #2
Inferior colliculus for pitch perception
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