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Disease constantly present in a particular geographic area


Disease with an unusually high occurrence


Worldwide severe epidemic






Number of new cases


Number of existing cases

Reservoir of Infection

Natural habitat of microbe


Diseases of animals transmitted to humans

Horizontal Transmission

Direct contact between peoples

Vertical Transmission

Parents pass onto progeny; between a woman and fetus/infant via breastmilk


Touching inanimate objects; indirect contact


Arthropods that carry disease; Ex: Fleas (Yersina pestis), Mosquito (Plasmodium species, Malaria)


Minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug

Therapeutic Index

toxicity of a given drug; low = more toxic to patient, high = less toxic to patient


Inhibit bacterial growth; host defenses eliminate remaining pathogens


Kill bacteria

Broad Spectrum

Antimicrobials affect a wide range of bacteria, good for immediate therapy; good for GP and GN organisms

Narrow Spectrum

Antimicrobials affect a limited range of bacteria; less disruption of normal microbiota, but takes time to develop

Intrinsic/Innate Resistance

Types of bacteria inherently resistant to effects of a drug

Acquired Resistance

Sensitive organisms develop resistance via spontaneous mutation or acquiring new genetic information

Antigenic Drift

Minor mutations

Antigenic Shift

Genetic reassortment, dramatically different strains than original

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