Disease constantly present in a particular geographic area
Disease with an unusually high occurrence
Worldwide severe epidemic
Number of new cases
Number of existing cases
Reservoir of Infection
Natural habitat of microbe
Diseases of animals transmitted to humans
Direct contact between peoples
Parents pass onto progeny; between a woman and fetus/infant via breastmilk
Touching inanimate objects; indirect contact
Arthropods that carry disease; Ex: Fleas (Yersina pestis), Mosquito (Plasmodium species, Malaria)
Minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug
toxicity of a given drug; low = more toxic to patient, high = less toxic to patient
Inhibit bacterial growth; host defenses eliminate remaining pathogens
Antimicrobials affect a wide range of bacteria, good for immediate therapy; good for GP and GN organisms
Antimicrobials affect a limited range of bacteria; less disruption of normal microbiota, but takes time to develop
Types of bacteria inherently resistant to effects of a drug
Sensitive organisms develop resistance via spontaneous mutation or acquiring new genetic information
Genetic reassortment, dramatically different strains than original
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