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Exam 3 - Exercise and Sports Psychology
Terms in this set (148)
Low self-esteem is associated with
poor physical health and poor mental health
High self-esteem is associated with
independence and leadership,
happiness and well-being
Self-concept is a
description of self....
+ characterized by several "sub-selves".
+hierarchically organized from specific to general
Self-esteem is a
evaluation of self....
+ refers to how a person feels about him- or herself.
+also has been hypothesized to have a hierarchical structure.
Overall Self - esteem
categorized as general enduring to specific changing
example: Physical self esteem is a domain >>> A subdomain would be "competence" >>>A "facet" would be soccer >>> a "subfacet" would be shooting
Different people emphasize different FACETS of themselves to determine self esteem
Example: I might be better at my social self esteem than my academic self esteem; another example would be I am not good @ soccer but I am not losing sleep over it!
The Physical Self-Perception ProfileExample question:
- Sport Competence-
Some people feel that they are not very good when it comes to playing
sports BUT Others feel that they are really good at just about every
- Really true for me
-Sort of true for me
****and both options are on both sides!!!
Do exercisers have a higher self esteem than non exercisers on the PSPP?
Yes they do because exercise is POSITIVELY correlated with self esteem!
Reviews and meta-analyses show that....
physical activity is associated with improvements in self-esteem scores
Overall SE & Physical SE
So basically if strength is the lowest of the self esteem that's the one you should improve on to improve OVERALL SE!
improves LOW SE
When you increase your fitness...
you improve your SE
Physical self-esteem scores are enhanced more than...
overall self-esteem scores from before to after training
Possible mechanisms for self-esteem change due to physical activity
•Increase in fitness
•Positive social experiences
•Sense of goal achievement
•Increased sense of well-being (biology?)
•Increase in competence, mastery or control
Possible confounding factors for self-esteem change due to physical activity
•Socially desirable responding
•Self expectancy (placebo)
•Group or leader expectancy
Group leader (motivator)
Example: A study shoes that when you are told to expect to improve on something by a group leader(motivator) then it boost your SE!
Sleep is . . .
A "daily", reversible behavior involving "disengagement" from, and "reduced sensory responsiveness" to, the environment. Sleep occurs in a "stereotypic posture (how you lay down)" and results in characteristic patterns of "brain electrocortical activity (EEG patterns)."
There are two
kinds of sleep:
REM & Non-REM
Characteristics of REM sleep
1. High CNS activity with a wake-like EEG (tonic)
2. Rapid eye movements (phasic)
3. Complete inhibition of most skeletal muscle
EMG (but there are phasic twitches)
4. Associated with dreaming
REM sleep is triggered by...
the PONS & neighboring structures in the brainstem.
-The PONS also sends signals to shut off spinal cord neurons
Within the PONS what is the most important site for production of REM sleep?
The nucleus reticularis pontis oralis/caudalis (RPO/RPC)
What neurons are responsible for REM sleep?
REM sleep uses acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter.
What neurons help turn off REM sleep?
Dorsal raphe (5-HT) and locus coeruleus (NE) neurons
There is Alpha activity and then soon after there is beta activity
Stage 1 sleep
Theta activity is present and slow eye movement, as well as decrease from being awake
Stage 2 sleep
sleep spindles and K complexes
Stage 3 sleep & Stage 4 sleep
slows all the way down to Delta activity
Theta activity and Beta activity
K - Complex
Healthy and seen in the first sleep cycles (1 and 2)
Beta Waves and Frequency
means you are alert and seen when you are awake
Alpha Waves and Frequency
appear when you are relaxed and your eyes are closed at a frequency of 8 - 12/sec
non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
Theta Waves and Frequency
Are released during stage of NREM sleep and are released at 3-7/sec
Delta Waves and Frequency
Appear in stage 3 and 4 of NREM sleep, but appear mostly in stage 4 and are relased <3/sec
Resembles waking activity in the brain
The slower the frequency...
the less activation of the neural network
the more alpha activity the less active the neural network
Activation of this part of the brain helps contribute to wakefulness, and deactivation of this part of the brain helps generate NREM sleep
Electrical and chemical stimulation of the___________ ___________ is the most effective site in the brain for the induction of NREM sleep
It has been hypothesized that temperature sensitive nerves in the _____________ __________ that project to the basal forebrain are key in the control of slow wave sleep.
True or False. Do some nerves actively generate NREM sleep?
Anti - Anxiety Drugs
work by enhancing the
activity of GABAA receptors. These receptors are found in high numbers on nerves in the
amygdala, hypothalamus, PAG & hippocampus.
SO.... all these places are a place of fear and when using anxiety drugs it suppresses the anxiety which then helps you sleep!
Sleep is initiated in
NREM/ REM cycles occur...
every 90 mins
Most SWS occurs...
in the first 3 non-REM cycles
Most REM occurs
during the final third of the night
Total sleep time...
6.5 to 7.5 hours
Slow wave sleep is regulated by...
a homeostatic mechanism
the timing of the first REM period is...
regulated by a circadian mechanism
first 4 hours of sleep...
are the slow sleep cycle and there is very little REM!
hours 5-7 of sleep...
Are compromised of REM!
During a normal night of sleep...
there is very LITTLE slow sleep waves
During sleep Deprivation...
there is A LOT of slow sleep waves
As you get older...
you are much more awake and you have less Delta sleep.
The amount of slow wave sleep....
depends primarily on the amount of prior wakefulness.
When you are a baby...
you have a lot of REM sleep and delta sleep is also high at this time!
circadian clock (temp)
Around 4am or 5am is when your body is the coldest so you start waking up, around noon is when your body reaches its peak body temp and your body feels warm b/c your eating and digestion gives off heat!
Circadian Rhythms Influence
•eating habits and digestion
•other important bodily functions
Irregular Rhythms are Linked to CHC
•depression, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder
Source of Circadian Rhythm?
Earth's rotation on its axis is the fundamental orbital mechanism that underlies endogenous circadian rhythms
(s) Sleep Pressure
if you are awake longer you have more pressure...
- sleep pressure goes down when your a sleep
-if you stay up for long periods you increase sleep wave activity and total sleep time!
At night spinal cord fluids shut down...
So, you won't move and when you don't move no ATP is being produced which means no energy is being produced as well, therefore no heat is being made and body temp DROPS!
releases melatonin , which makes you sleepy
- deep sleep decreases my 30%
- time to fall asleep increases by 5 mins
- less melatonin being released
switches direction in deep sleep
Why do we sleep?
Slow sleep waves remove toxins through the spinal fluid flushing it out
Sleep Apnea can be reversed...
for 50% of patients who are diagnosed by losing weight... results are shown even if you lose 10% of body fat
Sleep Onset Insomnia
Basically come on I need to sleep!!!! and it takes to long for me to fall asleep
Early Morning Awakening Insomnia
You fall asleep within 5 mins, but you wake up at 3am and no longer can fall back asleep
Sleep Maintenance Insomnia
You fall asleep within 5 mins, but you wake up and sleep then wake up and the whole thing happens throughout the night!
can influence the Circadian Timing system
The total sleep time
depends on the exercise duration
Exercise prior to sleep...
does not delay you from falling asleep, even though some clinicians do not recommend it, studies show no evidence.
When you exercise...
there is more SWS and more toxins are being flushed out as well as less time in REM and more TST
is associated with self reported sleep problems!
Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine:
- direction of behavior
- intensity of effort or how hard the people work
- the persistence displayed in meeting goals
Desire to perform an act in order to receive some sort of reward.
Associated stimuli (Pavlov's dog) - food and bell
There are consequences which means you get punished
models and imitation
influences of others on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; the people around you influence you
The desire to perform an act b/c it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself
- motivation comes from performing the task
- satisfies the internal need or desire
- biology, cognition, emotion, volition, spiritual, and moral
essential for survival... ex: water or food
a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension
Drive - Reduction Theory
approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal
those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst
Acquired (secondary) Drives
those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval
EXTRINSIC is NOT recommended b/c if you get paid (as a reward) as a motivator once the money is given to you, you lose the drive to be motivated
require less in order to be motivated
seek more attention
a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.... such as the goats up in the trees eating leaves
theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation
law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a high-moderate level whereas more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level
someone who needs more arousal than the average person
are performed well when we are highly aroused
are performed well if we are not very aroused
Behavior related to completing tasks as the primary objective. AS known as learning orientation
Instinct Theories of Motivation
The notion that human behavior is motivated by certain innate patterns of action that are activated in response to stimuli
Achievement Goal Theory
goals and perception are the main factors in Motivation
defeating others; winning
how does a person think they compare
ex: YES! I believe I can do it!!! or NO!!! I can't do it !
focuses on how people explain their successes and failures
the stability factor
permanent or unstable
Locus of causality
the cause of behavior is external or internal to him/herself
Locus of Control
what can be controlled/ not controlled
I lost because I wasn't wearing my luck shoes
I lost because i was not trying
lost b/c I am bad
I do not have the ability to win someone who is professional
is the objective of an action
Human behavior, including athletic performance can be CAUSALLY directed by consciously setting goals
The most important goals were...
34% Improving performance
60% difficult goals
2 characteristics of a goal:
Content and Intensity
is the objective of the goal.
ex: how difficult is it? how clear is it? Is the timing specified???
about 10% of the these goals are achieved , however moderate are more likely to be achieved b/c they are less difficult
Why hasn't goal setting worked as well in sport research?
- the goal has not been difficult
- assigned goals were not accepted
-subjects in the "do your best" set specific goals
is the energy one is willing to expend to achieve the goals.
ex: how committed are you? how important is the goal?
is needed for goal setting to be effective
directs attention, regulates intensity of effort, regulates duration of effort, and encourages reconsideration of technique
does not become maintenance until you reach the 6 month mark
non purposeful, such as walking on a treadmill to nowhere...
is absolutely necessary in order to be physically active
maintained when it is reinforced by aspects of the social and physical environment
#1 Develop prompts or cues using ________________ techniques.
#2. Ensure the outcome of physical activity using ___________
ex: contingency management (reward/punishment), goal setting, contracts, and so forth
Goals regulate behavior by providing direction, mobilizing effort, and instigating the search for ways to attain them.
- emphasizes the link b/w behavior and outcome
Specific, measurable goals...
• are easier to monitor and make adjustments.
•When goals are specific, it's easier to know when they have been met.
Prochaska proposes that people change behavior by moving through five stages:
MAKE PEOPLE AWARE of their lack of physical activity and of the positive consequences of being active.
MOVE PEOPLE TO PREPARE Marketing and media campaigns that promote physical activity provide accurate, easy-to-understand information about how to start an exercise program can help move people into the preparation stage, during which they begin to form their intentions.
Process of Change
Cognitive/Experiential and Behavioral
to start exercising are affected by role models, perceived barriers & benefits, and self-confidence.
about starting and sticking with exercise is shaped by:
• present success
• peer role models
PROMPT PEOPLE TO ACT
evaluate how past habits, environments, and social influences create barriers for physical activity; plan how to overcome them.
IMPLEMENT THE PLAN
Self-regulation skills such as goal setting and self-monitoring help move from preparation to the action stage; intentions become reality.
Fitness assessments and self-monitoring can be useful tactics to help in goal setting.
•Identify situations that put you at high risk for relapse.
•Plan to avoid or cope with these situations. EX: relaxation time
•Put the consequences of not exercising in proper perspective
EXPECT AND PLAN FOR LAPSES
Point of Decision
it is a stimulus control, an example would be placing a sign to take the stairs b/c it is healthy for your heart above the escalators
Best intervention setting
community ex: someone mows the lawn then 5 mins later someone is also mowing the lawn
best Intervention type
best social context
best physical activity mode
best delivery method
best physical activity intensity
low intensity less than 50%
The lost "Lassie Factor"?
Walk your dog everyday even if you don't have one...
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