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170 terms

chapter 15: diagnostic procedures and pharmacology

evaluation or appraisal of a condition
vital signs
four key indications that the body systems are functioning
average temperature
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
in the mouth
in the ear
under the arm
in the rectum
abnormally low body temperature
extremely high fever
rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart
respiratory rate
number of complete respirations per minute
blood pressure
force of the blood against the walls of the arteries
measures blood pressure
upper BP number
lower BP number
fifth vital sign in some hospitals
listening for sounds within the body, usually performed through a stethoscope
to listen
abnormal rattle or crackle-like respiratory sound heard during inspiration, or breathing in
abnormal sound heard while listening to the chest during inspiration, expiration, or both
abnormal high-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation, result of a partial blockage of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea
abnormal sound heard during auscultation of an artery
heart murmur
abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
abdominal sounds
normal noises made by the intestines
examination technique in which examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts
diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers
instrument used to examine the interior of the eye
instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facilitate the inspection of its interior
instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane
instrument used to listen to sounds within the body
any position in which the patient is lying down
prone position
patient is lying on the belly with the face down
horizontal recumbent position
patient is lying on the back with the face up
dorsal recumbent position
patient is lying on the fack with the knees bent
sims' position
patient is lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back
knee-chest position
patient is lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table
lithotomy position
patient is lying on the back with the feet and legs raised and supported in stirrups
results are needed immediately
tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multichannel laboratory testing equipment
individual trained and skilled in phlebotomy
puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood
capillary puncture
technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test
complete blood cell count
series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
test based on the speed at which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container
percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red blood cells
platelet count
measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function
red blood cell count
determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood
total hemoglobin test
usually part of a complete blood count
white blood cell count
determination of the number of leukocytes in the blood
white blood cell differential test
determines what percentage of the total count is composed of each of the five types of leukocytes
basic metabolic panel
group of 8 specific blood tests that provide important information about the curent status of the patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and calcium levels
blood urea nitrogen test
measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea
crossmatch tests
performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion
c-reactive protein test
performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body
lipid panel
measures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in a blood sample
prothrombin time
test used to diagnose conditions associated with abnormalities sof clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy
serum bilirubin test
measures the ability of the liver ability to take up, process, and secrete bilirubin into the bile
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity
examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
fibrous or protein materials, such as pus and fats, that are thrown off into the urine in kidney disease
pH of urine
excessive acid in the body fluids
specific gravity
urine reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present
sweet, fruity odor, found in small quantities in normal urine and in larger amounts in the urine of a diabetic
presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is a sign of impaired kidney function
presence of bacteria in the urine
presence of calcium in the urine
increased concentration of creatine in the urine
drug-screening urine test
rapid method of identifying in the body of one or more drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana
presence of glucose in the urine, is most commonly caused by diabetes
presence of blood in the urine
presence of ketones in the urine
presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine
presence of pus in the urine
urine culture and sensitivity tests
laboratory tests that are used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and to determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment
visual examination of the interior of a body cavity
endoscopic surgery
describes a surgical procedure performed through very small incisions with the use of an endoscope and specialized instruments
small flexible tube with a light and a lens at the end
visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope that is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint
puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy
puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid
surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected middle ear
contrast medium
administered by swallowing, via an enema, or intravenously to make specific body structures visible
means that the substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film
substances does allow x-rays to pass through and appears black or dark gray on the resulting film
uses x-rays passing through the patient to expose a film or create a digital image that shows the body in profile
CT scan
uses x-rays with computer assistance to produce multiple cross-sectional views of the body
uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce images
intravenous contrast medium
injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels and organs visible
radiopaque contrast medium used primarily to visualize the gastrointestinal tract
x-rays, an image of hard-tissue internal structures is created by the exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders with x-rays and other forms of radiant energy
radiographic positioning
describes the body placement and the part of the body closest to the x-ray film
radiographic projection
describes the path that the x-ray beam follows through the body from entrance to exit
anteroposterior projection
has the patient positioned with the back parallel to the film
posteroanterior projection
has the patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it
lateral projection
has the patient positioned at right angles to the film
oblique projection
has the patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film
extraoral radiography
film is placed and exposed outside of the mouth
panoramic radiograph
shows all of the structures in both dental arches in a single film
intraoral radiography
means that the film is placed within the mouth and exposed by a camera positioned next to the exterior of the cheek
periapical radiographs
show the entire tooth and some surround tissue
bite-wing radiographs
show the crowns of teeth in both arches on one side of the mouth
magnetic resonance angiography
combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body
visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen
recording of images as they appear in motion on a fluorescent screen
imaging of deep body structures by recording the echoes of pulses of sound waves that are above the range of human hearing
image created by ultrasonography
ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures and motion of the heart
doppler echocardiogram
performed in the same way as an echocardiogram; measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart
fetal ultrasound
noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy
transesophageal echocardiography
ultrasonic imaging technique used to evaluate heart structures
nuclear medicine
radioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes
radioactive substances
nuclear scan
diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear medicine technology to gather information about the structure and function of organs or body systems not seen on x-rays
bone scan
nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown
thyroid scan
radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine is administered
single photon emission computed tomography
type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing perfusion through organs and tissues
flow of bood through an organ
positron emission tomography
combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas
study of the nature, uses, and effects of drugs for medical purposes
licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications
medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional such as a physician or dentist
medication that can be purchased without a prescription
generic drug
usually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark
brand-name drug
sold under the name given by the manufacturer
compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a drug, alcohol, or other substance
adverse drug reaction
undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken
patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional
factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised
drug interaction
result of drugs reacting with each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful
idiosyncratic reaction
unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it
paradoxical reaction
result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results
inactive substance that is administered only for its suggestive effects
drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug
medication administered to prevent or reduce fever
relieves inflammation and pain without affecting consciousness
refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness
analgesic that reduces pain and fever, but does not relieve inflammation
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
nonnarcotic analgesics administered to control pain by reducing inflammation and swelling
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine that is sold over the counter under the brand names of advil and motrin
administered to prevent seizures
administered to prevent or relieve depression
pain-relieving creams
applied topically to relieve pain due to conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation
method of pain control by wearing a device that delivers small electrical impulses to nerve endings through the skin
inhalation administration
describes vapors and gases taken in through the nose or mouth and absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs
oral administration
refers to medications taken by mouth to be absorbed through the walls of the stomach or small intestine
rectal administration
insertion of medication in the rectum either in the form of a suppository or a liquid
sublingual administration
placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly
topical application
liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated
transdermal medication
administered from a patch that is applied to unbroken skin
taken into the body, or administered, in a manner other than through the digestive tract
subcutaneous injection
made into the fatty layer just below the skin
intradermal injection
made into the middle layers of the skin
intramuscular injection
made directly into the muscle tissue
intravenous injection
made directly into the vein
single, concentrated dose of drug usually injected into a blood vessel over a short period of time