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Unit 4 APHG Test
Terms in this set (113)
Gerrymandering adjusts voting district boundaries in order to
benefit the interest of the one political party
what is the correct hierarchy of political-administrative units in order from largest to smallest?
Empire, state, province, county, cities, towns, village
Indonesia is an example of which of the following types of states?
which country is the best example of a nation-state?
japan or israel
which countries discussed is the best example of a perforated state?
south africa and italy
which international organization could best be incorporated into Spykman's Rimland Theory
What is the primary reason for establishing a prorupting in a boundary?
for resources to access raw material
elements of nationalism include
loyalty, centripetal force, shared attitudes, patriotism
balkanization refers to
the splitting of a country by ethnic groups
a nation or nationality is
a grouping of people with common culture and history
Conflict in Africa is widespread because of
Residue of colonization
one example of a multinational state is
the United Kingdom
an area organized into an independent political unit is a
Over the past half century, the number of sovereign states in the world
has decreased by more than 100
which shape or condition most affects the ability of some countries to participate in the global economy?
the process when a group forcibly removes another group is called
the European union, the Arab league, and the United Nations are all example of
supernatural organizations (Supra)
which of the following terms refers to an area of instability located between regions with opposing political and culture values?
which of the European countries did NOT have a significant, long-lasting colonial presence in Africa after 1920?
Portugal and Germany
A geographic zone where no state exercises power is called a(n)
the boundary between two countries is set by a river that runs between them. This type of boundary is known as a
What is MOST likely to serve as a centripetal force within a state?
According to Mackinder's heartland theory, which of the following countries would be MOST likely to dominate the globe?
China or Russia
The European Union's roots for cooperation lie primarily in
Increase stability and commerce in Europe
the study of how governments are organized and administer space on Earths surface, and especially the geographic dimensions of conflict
what is one of Earths most fundamental cultural characteristics?
the divisions of our planets surface into a collection of spaces (usually occupied by individual countries)
a learned cultural response rooted in European history
what are the four qualities of a country?
1. occupies defined territory
2. maintains permanent population
3. has independent government
4. recognized as a state
a state has..
takes pride in people of a country, looks down on others who aren't them
takes pride in country; doesn't look down on anyone
what is the only land mass that doesn't belong to anyone?
several countries claim portions of it
what separates a state from its neighbors?
boundaries no longer in use (ex. great wall of china)
a zone where no state exercises complete political control
what are the three types of natural boundaries?
mountain boundary, and
what are the three types of boundaries?
natural, cultural, geometric
Political borders that follow some feature of the natural environment
coincides with differences in culture
borders that like look straight line when drawn (on map)
What is a nation-state?
a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space
When did the U.S. and the Soviet Union "rule" the world?
mid- 1940s to late 1980s
The Treaty of Antartica
signed in 1959 and renewed in 1991 (legal framework for managing Antartica)
When were North and South Korea admitted to the UN as separate countries?
After the U.S and the former Soviet Union defeated Japan in WWII, the two allied nations then divided which colony of Japan into two occupational zones?
China believes that Taiwan is not a separate sovereign state and is apart of what country?
Up until what date did the Taiwan government agreed that they were apart of what country?
Civil War Dates
Cold War dates
T or F- most other states/countries recognized China and Taiwan as separate countries.
When did Taiwan's president announce that Taiwan regarded itself as an independent country?
What state is considered by most African countries a sovereign state?
Who controls Western Sahara?
What is the largest country?
What are the states that have more than 5 million square kilometers?
China, Canada, U.S., Brazil, and Australia
States with very small land areas
what is the smallest microstate in the U.N.?
Many microstates are _______
Prior to the 1800s, which way was the Earth's surface organized?
city-states, empires, and tribes
a minority group concentrated inside a country that is dominated by a different, larger culture group
a fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated by land from the main part of the states territory
why do neighboring states try to claim enclaves?
what are not considered exclaves?
What were the first states to evolve in Mesopotamia?
a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside
How long did the Egyptian Empire last?
Who assembled the largest colonial empire with colonies on every continent?
Who has the second largest overseas territory with colonies mainly in West Africa and Southeast Asia?
Who tried to compete with Britain and France by obtaining African colonies?
Who attempted to assimilate its colonies into their culture?
What colonies became independent after WWII?
mostly African and Asian
What are the five basic shapes of states?
Compact, perforated, elongated, prorupted, fragmented
The distance from the center to any boundary is about the same (efficeint)
why are compact states beneficial?
they are beneficial for smaller states because communication can be established to all the region
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension (access or disruption)
what are the two principal reasons why proruption states are created?
can provide a state with access to resources and can separate two states that would share a boundary
long, narrow shape (potential isolation; Chile, Italy)
What are the pro and cons of elongated states?
(pro:) lots of access to water
(con:) may suffer from poor internal communications
includes discontinuous pieces of territory (Problematic; U.S.)
What are the two types of fragmented states?
areas separated by water and those separated by another state
completely surrounds another state (South Africa surrounds Lesotho)
having no direct access to an ocean (Lesotho)
what are the three characteristics of a landlocked state?
has river, surrounded by one state, must use another country's seaport to send/receive goods
why are local government boundaries sometimes drawn?
to separate different nationalities or ethnicities (or to provide advantage to political parties)
only the central government has the power
the central and state government share the power
which continent are unitary states most common in?
all multinational states adopted ______
why do all multinational states adopt unitary systems?
so the values of a nationality can be imposted on others
why may multinational states adopt a federal system?
to empower different nationalities
why is a federal system more suitable for large states?
the national capital may be too remote to provide effective control over isolated regions
what are the three forms of gerrymandering?
wasted vote, excess vote, stacked vote
spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the minority
concentrates opposition supports into a few districts
links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries
recent gerrymandering in the U.S. has primarily been
boundaries separating legislative districts within the U.S. (other countries are periodically redrawn to ensure each has about the same population)
how many districts of the U.S. House of Reps are redrawn every 10 years?
T or F: UN members can vote to establish a peacekeeping force and request states to contribute military forces.
what are the three rules when redrawing boundaries?
(1) must be equal (2) must be contiguous (3) must be a basic shape
When were the Napoleonic Wars?
Heartland-Rimland model (halford mackinder 1904)
define the global geopolitical landscape and determine areas of potential future conflict
Balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances
what could tip the balance of power?
the addition of one or two states
After WWII, European states joined military alliances dominated by which superpowers?
NATO or the Warsaw Pact
When did the NATO and Warsaw Pact become obsolete?
when Europe was not overrun by military confrontation
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
how many members does the OSCE have?
55 (U.S., Canada, Russia, and most of Europe)
Organization of American States
how many states does the OAS include?
35 in Western Hemisphere
what does the OAS promote?
social, cultural, political, and economic links among member states
what do commonwealth members seek?
economic and cultural cooperation
Organization of African Unity
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