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America Becomes a World Power
Spanish-American War and World War I
Terms in this set (53)
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations
(1898) war fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines; lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; ended with the Treaty of Paris
Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst
Rival newspaper owners that used yellow journalism in 1890s to stir up emotions in favor of US intervention in Cuba against Spain. Wanted to sell more papers.
Causes of the Spanish-American War
Yellow Journalism, U.S.S. Maine sinking, & the De Lome Letter.
A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
The Rough Riders
Group of men put together by Teddy Roosevelt/ Famous for the charge up San Juan Hill in Cuba during the Spanish-American War
Alfred Thayer Mahan
"In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. Imperialist.
Sandford B. Dole
Plantation owner that took control of Hawaii and helped annex it to the USA
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's independence and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Open door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. Free trade with China.
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
A canal that crosses the isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Built by the United States between 1904 and 1914.
Reasons for the Panama Canal being built
improve global shipping, easier for Navy to defend overseas empire
The significance of the year 1898
The USA becomes an imperial world power and Spain is no longer an imperial world power.
Possessions taken in the Spanish-American War
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines.
Possessions taken in the late 1800's (Not from the Spanish-American War)
Alaska and Hawaii
Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
Promoted US interests overseas by encouraging American business to invest in foreign countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Central America. Investors were promised protection of the US military. "dollars instead of bullets"
Reasons for Imperialism
Raw Materials and Markets, Naval bases around the world to project American power, cultural superiority (We must civilize the world)
Americans who opposed US expansionism
How did the US get the rights to the Panama Canal?
They instigated a revolution in Panama, where they overthrew the Columbian government. This gave them a nation and the US permission to build the canal.
World War I
(1914 - 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.
Freedom of the seas
Principle that neutral nations have the right to trade without interference even during wartime.
British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war.
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
What was the role of US loans in World War I?
The US loaned 2.2 billion to the allies and 20 million to Germany during the war and worried if the allies lost, that they would never be repaid.
Reasons for US entry into World War I
Freedom of the seas (unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking of the Lusitania, violation of the Sussex pledge), loans to the allies, and Zimmerman telegram.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
Schenck vs. US
Supreme Court ruled that the government could limit free speech when there is "clear and present danger" involved.
Convicted by the U.S. government of distributing anti-draft pamphlets
1917 law that set heavy fines and long prison terms for antiwar activities
1918 law that made it illegal to criticize the government
American Expeditionary Force
US forces that fought in World War I
John J. Pershing
A General that commanded the first U.S. troops as part of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
Battle of the Argonne Forest
The final Allied offensive where the Americans broke through the German defense. Marked the ending of the Great War.
fought in the battle of the Argonne Forest. Won the congressional medal of honor for heroism.
New Technology in WW I
Machine Guns, Airplanes, Tanks, Poison Gas
Impact of new technology in WW I
High casualties, stalemate due to the Trench warfare that developed to combat this new technology.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
Turning point of 1914-1918
World War I. US becomes part of an alliance system and begins to be involved in global decisions.
US involvement in World War I
Constitutional issues raised during World War I
The first Amendment is challenged by the Espionage and Sedition Acts.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
President from 1913-1921.
Treaty of Versailles
1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air force. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly led to a severe depression in Germany.
Henry Cabot Lodge
..., Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
How are historical eras categorized?
Eras are determined by periods of time that share political, social, or economic characteristics.
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