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KIN 3385 - Chapter 13 pt. 3
Terms in this set (10)
How long does it take venous blood to become fully saturated in the capillary alveolus?
a minimum of 0.25 seconds but ~0.75-1.0 seconds
Describe the mechanism that controls ventilation perfusion matching.
with very high V/Q (dead space), ventilation is "wasted". Alveolar PCO2 drops near to zero, PO2 approaches atmospheric (1 atm) , but there is no blood exiting that segment. Meanwhile, alveolar ventilation (Va) is reduced. Thus dead space conditions cause hypercarbia (as well as some hypoxia.
Explain how oxygen is transported in blood:
a. Name the molecule that transport O2.
b. In which state does iron binds to oxygen.
c. Describe how oxygen saturation changes when partial pressure of oxygen is above and below 60 mmHg.
d. What explains the steepness of the Hb-O2 saturation curve when oxygen saturation is between 20-80%?
e. Explain the factors that move the Hb-O2 saturation curve to the right
f. Name a situation in which 2,3 DPG, temperature and pH are all shifted in a direction that facilitates the release of oxygen?
b. as an atom
c. when partial pressure drops, so does saturation of O2
d. the curve is very steep to begin but curves more and plateaus
e. high acidity, added DPG, and increased temp.
f. no DPG and lower temp
How does carbon monoxide affects oxygen binding to hemoglobin?
- At high concentrations, is 210 times more affinity for Hb than oxygen.
- CO reduces the amount of O_2 that combines with hemoglobin.
- When CO combines with hemoglobin it results in tighter binding of O_2, resulting in a shift of the curve to the left of normal.
- Inhalation of CO is a common cause of sickness and death due to poisoning, both intentional and accidental.
Describe the equation that leads to H+ + HCO3- and what happens to pH when PCO2 increases.
Acid-base equation and a decrease in pH, which will increase minute ventilation and therefore increase alveolar ventilation to attempt to reach homeostasis.
Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors located and what do they respond to?
carotid bodies and aortic bodies— respond to changes in the arterial blood.
ex. Significantly decreased P_O2 (hypoxia)
Increased H+ concentration (metabolic acidosis)
Increased P_CO2 (respiratory acidosis)
Name the two cranial nerves that carry information from the peripheral chemoreceptors to the ventilator centers.
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX cranial nerve) and vagus nerve (X cranial nerve)
Explain the function of each of the centers involved in ventilation and the factors that regulate ventilation, central and peripheral.
-Chemoreceptors respond to changes in PO2
- Faster response than central centers
- Ventilation x 2 increases when PO2 falls below 60 mmHg
respond to changes in the brain extracellular fluid. They are stimulated by increased P_CO2 via associated changes in H^+ concentration.
Name the most important factor that regulates ventilation. Does one unit change in PCO2 change ventilation more or less than one unit change in PO2?
carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions and oxygen levels are the most important.
One unit change in PCO2 is more than one unit change in PO2.
Does CO2 affect ventilation directly or indirectly?
CO2 directly affects ventilation.
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