Had almost 4 times as many free citizens
Defending their homeland gave them a strong reason to fight
Had many people to grow food and to work in factories making supplies
Had skills that made them good soldiers
Had more than 70% of the nation's rail lines
Many of the best officers in the United States were from the South
Had a strong navy and a large fleet of private trading ships
Had few factories to produce weapons, railroad tracts, and other supplies
Northern soldiers had to conquer a huge area to bring the South back into the Union
Had few railroads to move troops and vital supplies
They were invading unfamiliar land
The South had a small population, about 9 million lived in the Confederacy and 22 million in the Union
More than 1/3rd of the population was enslaved; therefore they had fewer people that could be soldiers
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