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does gas diffusion occur in the conducting zone

nose -> terminal bronchioles
air gas vol. ~150 mL in 150lb adult

does gas diffusion occur in the respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles -> alveoli
air gas vol. ~ 5-6 L

what is the longest airway in the body

the trachea

what is the function of mucus in the respiratory tract

moisten inspired air
trap dust particles

how is inspired air warmed

blood circulating in the the mucosal capillary netwrok

the 3 regions of the pharynx


what connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea

the larynx
"voice box"

where is the ciliated epithelium located in the larynx

below the vocal cords

where does cilia in the larynx move mucus to

upward towards the pharynx

this forms the anterior laryngeal wall and is the largest laryngeal cartilage

thyroid cartilage

this is in the "up" position during ventilation and in the "down" position during swallowing


this hyaline cartilage ring is at the inferior end of the larynx and is attached to the thyroid cartilage

circoid cartilage

Cricothyroidotomy (tracheotomy)

An emergency procedure used to establish an airway for patients with an upper airway obstruction
The thyroid cartilage is used as a landmark
An incision is made between the 1st and 2nd tracheal cartilages (through the cricothyroid ligament) or, less often, between the 2nd-4th tracheal cartilage
A small tube is inserted into the trachea and an O2 supply is attached

4 layers of tracheal wall (deep/luminal to superficial)

mucosa (ciliated epithelium & goblet cells)
submucosa (connective tissue)
Hyaline cartilage (16-20 rings - transverse smooth muscle fibers & elastic tissue)
Adventitia (anchors)

this is the most sensitive area for triggering the cough reflex

the carina

the carina is where the trachea

divides into R & L pulmonary bronchi

which bronchi is is more vertical, shorter, and wider

the right

the main bronchi cartilage is similar to

the incomplete cartilage rings of the trachea

due to its more vertical angle; fluid, food, or other foreign body aspiration is more likely to occur

in the right main stem primary bronchus

the secondary bronchi distribute where

to each lung lobe
R = 3
L = 2

what do the tertiary bronchi divide into


how many tertiary bronchi are there

10, one for each bronchopulmonary segment

the smallest airways of the conducting zone

terminal bronchioles

the largest airways of the respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles

what happens as bronchioles get smaller

cartilage is gradually lost and replaced by spiral bands of smooth muscle

why do smooth muscle spasms interrupt air flow and adversley affect gas diffusion

there is no supporting cartolage in bronchioles

primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi have

ciliated epithelium w/some goblet cells

how do the smaller bronchioles differ from the primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi

their epithelium is ciliated, but there are no goblet cells

what is and isn't found in the terminal bronchioles

there are macrophages to remove inhaled particles and the epithelium is non-ciliated

what seperates the lungs

the mediastinum

if one lung collapses what will happen to the other

it will remain inflated

where is the cardiac notch

the depression on the medial surface of the left lung

what are the surfaces of the lungs


what is the hilum

the area on the medial surface of the lung where bronchi, blood/lymph vessels, and nerves enter/exit the lungs

where is the diaphragm higher

on the right side

which lung is larger

the right 10%
it's thicker and broader, but shorter

what fills most of the space of the left hemithorax

the heart

what are the two porous serous membrane layers

parietal pleura- lines the wall of the pleural cavity
visceral pleura -covers each lung

what is the space between the parietal and visceral pleura

a potential space with a thin layer of viscous fluid

is air normally present in the pleural cavity


• Pressure within the pleural cavity is normally


pleural fluid allows

visceral and parietal pleurae to slide easily over each other during inhalation

is there a lot of pleural fluid

no, only a few mililiters (ml)

how is pleural fluid formed

from plasma filtrate and it's secreted from the pleura

what maintains the sub-atmospheric pressure within the pleural cavity

the Draining of pleural fluid from the pleural cavity via lymphatic capillaries and is returned to the blood circulation

what is the point of pleural surface tension

Pleural fluid causes the visceral and parietal pleura to "stick" together
Surface tension helps keep the lungs "up" (not collapsed)

what causes a pneumothorax

oSurface tension is broken and the lung (or lungs) collapse if air enters the pleural cavity (a pneumothorax)

persistent pleurisy/pleuritis often leads to

pleural effusion

pleurisy/pleuritis is

Inflammation of the pleural membrane having infectious and noninfectious etiologies
Often an extremely painful condition

pleural effusion is a

increase in pleural fluid secretion into the pleural cavity
May affect one or both lungs depending on the cause (etiology) and may adversely affect lung function

what divides the lungs into lobes


right lung oblique fissure extends inferiorly and anteriorly and

Superior part separates the superior and inferior lobes
Inferior part separates the inferior and middle lobes

left lung oblique fissure extends inferiorly and anteriorly and

separates the superior and inferior lobes

where is the horizontal fissure found

right lung only
Borders the middle lobe superiorly

what are the right lung lobes

superior, middle, and inferior

what are the left lung lobes

superior and inferior

what composes the anterior surface of each lung

the superior lobe

what does each lobe of the lung receive

a secondary (lobar) bronchus

Bronchopulmonary Segment is composed of

several small lobules

each lobule is wrapped in elastic connective tissue, what is contained within the lobules

Contains a pulmonary arteriole, a pulmonary venule, a lymph vessel, and a branch of the terminal bronchiole

where do terminal bronchioles subdivide into respiratory bronchioles

in the lobules

what lines the thin basement membrane of each cup shaped alveolus

simple squamous epithelium

the main site for gas diffusion is

Type I alveolar cells

an alveolar sac

is 2 + alveoli that share a common opening

the most numerous alveolar cells

`type 1

type I alveolar cells

The main sites for gas diffusion
Form part of the respiratory membrane (discussed later)
Most numerous
Composed of simple squamous epithelium
Form a nearly continuous lining of the alveolar wall

where are type II alveolar celss found

scattered amongst type I cells

what do type II alveolar celss do

secrete alveolar fluid

what does alveolar fluid do

moistens inspired air

where do you find alveolar fluid

on and between epithelial cells

what does alveolar fluid contain


what is surfactant and what is its function

A mixture of lipoproteins and phospholipids that decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Decreases incidence of alveolar collapse

dust cells

alveolar macrophages found in the alveolar walls that phagocytize that remove debris and fine dust particles from alveolar spaces

fibroblasts are found in the alveolar wall and they

produce elastic and reticular fibers that maintain the shape of the alveolar wall

the respiratory membrane is an enormaous surface area for gas diffusion

o There are approximately 300 million alveoli in both lungs = 750 square feet

what is the benefit of the respiratory membrane being only 0.5 micrometers thick

allows for RAPID gas diffusion

Respiratory Membrane Layers (listed in sequence from alveolar air space to the capillary umen/intravascular space)

Alveolar wall: type I and II alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages
Alveolar basement membrane surrounding the alveolar wall
Capillary basement membrane is often fused to the alveolar basement membrane
Capillary endothelium: a single layer of endothelial cells overlying the capillary basement membrane

what provides most blood flow to the lungs

pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary arteries and arterioles transport

venous (deoxygenated or mixed venous) blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the alveolar capillaries

CO2 diffusion from blood to alveoli and O2 diffusion from alveoli to the blood

external respiration

Pulmonary venules and veins transport

oxygenated blood to the left ventricle of the heart
Arterial (oxygenated) blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the systemic circulation

CO2 diffusion from tissue cells to tissue capillary blood and O2 diffusion from tissue capillary blood to tissue cells

Internal respiration

blood flow in bronchial circulation is

~70 ml/min/m2

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