RNR 2102 EXAM 2

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1 acre= 43560sq.ft., 43560 x 0.2= 8712 sq. ft.
A= 3.14 x r^2, 8712= 3.14 x r^2
8712/3.14= r^2
2774.52= r^2
square root of 2774.52= r
52.67ft.= radius of 0.2-acre circular plot
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Terms in this set (68)
Given the following volume table and the total tree tally on 12 plots of 0.1-ac each, compute trees/acre, basal area/acre, and volume/acre.
DBH Pulpwood height DBH Pulpwood height
(in.) 20 30 40 (in.) 20 30 40 ------Number of trees --- --- Pulpwood volume in cords 6 100 50 6 0.036 0.048 0.060 8 60 40 8 0.060 0.079 0.098
world geodetic system of 1984WGS84Universal Transverse MercatorUTMDigital Elevation ModelDEMDigital Orthophoto Quarter QuadranglesDOQQSelective AvailabilitySAfalse: computer-based system to store, manipulate, and output geographical dataTrue or False? GIS is a computerized system for making maps.falseTrue or False? GIS is a tool for storing maps and picturestrueTrue or False? GIS is a computer-based system to store, manipulate, and output geographical data.falseTrue or False? GPS units used by the military have higher PDOP than normal GPS units.falseTrue or False? - GPS works better during the day, when the clouds help improve the signals.falseTrue or False? - GPS cannot work at all in the forests, even if the canopy is sparse.falseTrue or False? The signals we obtain with normal GPS today contain random error introduced by the military.falseTrue of False? Post-processing requires a special kind of GPS called Differential GPS.trueTrue or False? Measurements of Cartesian coordinates are in meters.trueTrue or False? Measurements of geographic coordinates are in degrees.trueTrue or False? DOQQs are digital aerial photographs.trueTrue or False? A raster model consists of pixels and therefore can require a large amount of storage.trueTrue or False? A vector model consists of objects (points, lines, and polygons) that take up less storage.trueTrue or False? Metadata are a huge database that consists of both vector and raster models.falseTrue or False? Selective availability allows the GPS user to select the proper frequency (L1 or L2).Global positioning system. It allows you to know your location through satellite triangulation using a signal sent from between 4 and 7 satellitesWhat is GPS? Explain the basis of GPS and how it works.Measuring distance and direction from a known location to an object of interestWhat are measurement offsets?> 4: under 1m. 4-6: acceptable accuracy (open area). ≤ 8: under forest canopy.What range should you ideally attempt to maintain PDOP within?Post Processing. The process of first collecting GPS data in the field and later applying corrections to those data is often termedBefore May 1, 2000, signals were scrambled to limit precision to about 100 m.What is selective availability?signals reflecting off obstructions before reaching GPS. Unable to correctWhat is multipath error?survey grade uses L1 and L2 signals rather than just L1 signals like commercial gradeWhy are survey-grade GPS more accurate than commercial-grade GPS?d. All of the above. Differential GPS a. Relies on use of base stations in addition to the GPS receiver b. The GPS data are adjusted in real time c. Generally results in increased accuracy of geographic fixes d. All of the above e. None of the aboveGEOIDA _____________ is a smooth, mathematical representation of the Earth's surface that best fits the global mean sea levelGEODETIC DATUM. A ____________ is a set of referenced points against which position measurements were madeNAD27 uses 25,000 points while NAD83 270,000 point and references center of earth, not Meads Ranch KansasWhat are the main differences between NAD27 and NAD83?false, only 1 meterTrue or False? . The difference between NAD 83 and WGS84 can be up to 10 meters.What are the 3 most common projections used in North America? What are the differences among these projections?first+middle/60+last/3600 40+20/60+50/3600=40+0.33+0.0139= 40.3439 degrees. Convert 40°20'50" latitude into decimal degreesmultiply numbers after decimal by 60; multiply those numbers after that decimal by 60 .3472x60= 20.832; .832x60=50 40degrees20'50"Convert 40.3472° into degree-minute-second format.Cartesian: X Y readings Geographic: lat-long readingsList two types of coordinate systemsUTM divides the earth into _____ zones and the contiguous US into _____ zonesInput, management, manipulation and analysis, output. A GIS provides four basic capabilities. What are they?-dangling arc: not connected to another arc (dead-end street) -island: polygon enclosed completely within another polygon -metadata: info about the data, stores info about changed data, projections, and coordinate systemsWhat is a dangling arc? an island? metadata?Model made using an image, uses cells (pixels) to create the image. What is a raster model?Model using lines points and polygons to represent and define objects and boundariesWhat is a vector model?shape, size, color, patterns, tones, shadows. Name the elements that can be used to recognize an object on an aerial photo.centerThe mean is a measure of _________ of the distributionspread. The variance is a measure of _________ of the distribution.What is the Central Limit Theorem?X bar is normal then you can do hyp. testingWhat is the significance of the Central Limit Theorem?What are the null and alternate hypotheses for the two tests depicted on the right?Never accept a null hypothesisWhat is the difference between Accepting H0 and Failing to Reject H0?increase sample sizeIf you fail to reject the null hypothesis, what else can you do be able to reject H0 at the same α level?True or False: For a two-tailed test, the null hypothesis is rejected when |tcalculated| < ttabulated.FalseTrue or False: When the 95% confidence interval for µ contains c, a test if µ = c will be rejected at the 5% level.easierAt the same α level, it is ________ (easier, more difficult) to reject H0 for a one-tailed test as compared to a two-tailed test.rejectFor a two-tailed test, if the critical t value from the t-table is 2.01, and the calculated t value is -2.34, then we should ______ (reject, fail to reject) the null hypothesis.A sample of 41 catfish was caught, and the average length is 16.1 inches. If the variance is 30, perform the 5% test that the average length is equal to 14.5 inches.The _______________ method is used to estimate coefficients of regression models. This method minimizes a. ∑(𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦𝑖) b. ∑(𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦𝑖)^2 c. ∑|𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦𝑖| d. None of the aboveFlow rate or discharge of water along a natural channelDefine streamflowarea of land that collects and discharges water through one outletdefine watershedThe average velocity of a stream is 0.1 ft./second. If the stream is 6 feet wide and averaging 2 feet deep, what is the average flow of the stream?