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abnormal psych- chapter 14: neurodevelopmental disorders
Terms in this set (34)
Neurologically based disorders that are revealed in a clinically significant way during a child's developing years.
Developmental disorder featuring maladaptive levels of inattention, excessive activity, and impulsiveness.
Genes that are deleted as a result of mutations; these deletions may play a role in the development of ADHD and other disorders.
copy number variants
Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by academic performance that is substantially below what would be expected given the person's age, intelligence quotient (IQ) score, and education.
specific learning disorder
Repetitions of words or parts of words, as well as prolongations of speech sounds.
childhood-onset fluency disorder (used o be called stuttering)
Getting one's meaning or message across to others (expressive language disorder), or understanding the message coming from others (receptive language disorder)
Trent's developmental disorder is characterized by uncontrollable yelps, sniffs, and grunting noises.
Ten-year-old Cole can be frustrating to his parents, teachers, and friends. He has trouble waiting his turn during games and does things seemingly without thinking. He often calls out answers in school, sometimes before the complete question is asked.
In school, 6-year-old Miley appears extremely awkward. She doesn't understand when other children are being sarcastic and misses many social communication cues
social (pragmatic) communication disorder
Kelly was a good student until the sixth grade. Her grades slowly began to drop, despite her increased studying. Now, as a high school senior concerned about graduation, and with hopes of going to college, Kelly has sought help. She places above average on an IQ test but shows significant problems with reading and comprehension.
specific learning disorder
Eight-year-old Chandra is described by everyone as a "handful." She fidgets constantly in class, drumming her fingers on the desk, squirming in her chair, and getting up and down. She has trouble waiting her turn at work or at play, and she sometimes has violent outbursts.
characterized by significant impairment in social interactions and communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, and activity.
Pervasive developmental disorder involving severe regression in language, adaptive behavior, and motor skills after a 2- to 4-year period of normal development.
childhood disintegrative disorder
Progressive neurodevelopmental disorder featuring constant hand- wringing, intellectual disability, and impaired motor skills.
Wide-ranging, significant, and longlasting dysfunctions that appear before the age of 18.
pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified
Attention shared by two persons toward an object after one person has indicated interest in the object to the other person; this social interaction is limited or absent in people with autism spectrum disorder.
Vocal characteristics such as tone and stress; people with autism spectrum disorder often have trouble recognizing and interpreting these vocal cues.
Instructional techniques that are used with children having neurodevelopmental disorders and that move away from traditional desk instruction toward more natural social interactions.
naturalistic teaching strategies
At an early age, Dwight became preoccupied with geography and could name all of the state capitals. His speech development was not delayed, but he does not like to play with other children or to be touched or held
ASD requiring support
Six-year-old Tangelique has a low IQ and enjoys sitting in the corner by herself, where she arranges her toys or spins around in circles. She is unable to communicate verbally. She throws temper tantrums when her routine is changed even in the slightest way or when her parents try to get her to do something she doesn't want to do
ASD requiring very substantial support
Six-year-old Megan experiences many problems in communicating and does not seem to understand the "rules" when speaking with other children.
social (pragmatic) communication disorder
Five-year-old Alicia has increasingly severe intellectual disability and is beginning to have trouble walking on her own. One of the characteristics of her disorder is constant hand-wringing.
A diagnosis received when one achieves a significantly below-average score on a test of intelligence and by limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life.
intellectual disability ID
Recessive disorder involving the inability to break down a food chemical whose buildup causes intellectual disability, seizures, and behavior problems. PKU can be detected by infant screening and prevented by a specialized diet.
X-linked disorder characterized by intellectual disability, signs of cerebral palsy, and self-injurious behavior.
Type of intellectual disability caused by a chromosomal aberration (chromosome 21) and involving characteristic physical appearance. Sometimes known as trisomy 21.
Prenatal medical procedure that allows the detection of abnormalities (for example, Down syndrome) in the developing fetus. It involves removal and analysis of amniotic fluid from the mother.
A genetic test conducted during early pregnancy that samples cells found in the placenta (chorionic villi) and assesses possible genetic or chromosomal problems in the fetus.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Pattern of abnormality caused by a defect in the X chromosome resulting in intellectual disability, learning problems, and unusual physical characteristics.
fragile x syndrome
Mild intellectual disability that may be caused largely by environmental influences
cultural-familial intellectual disability
Kevin received an IQ score of 20. He needs help with all his basic needs, including dressing, bathing, and eating.
Adam received an IQ score of 45. He lives in a fully staffed group home and needs a great deal of help with many tasks. He is beginning to receive training for a job in the community
Jessica received an IQ score of 30. She lives in a fully staffed group home where she is trained in basic adaptive skills and communication. She is improving over time and can communicate by pointing or using her eye-gaze board
Ledel received an IQ score of 65. He lives at home, goes to school, and is preparing to work when he is through with school
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