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Psych of Sport - Exam 3
Terms in this set (295)
What are the characteristics of group and team dynamics?
They "share a common fate" that is interdependent, members have a "mutual benefit," they have close interactions and influence each other, they have a structured form of communication, they have common perceptions about the group, and they have norms that guide member behavior
What components are in the linear perspective theory of group development?
Forming, storming, norming, and performing
What is the forming component of the linear perspective theory?
Where players will familiarize themselves with the team, assess each others strengths & weaknesses, will determine if they belong in the group, and will figure out what their role is
What is the storming component of the linear perspective theory?
It is characterized by resistance to the leader and rather control by the group. Interpersonal conflicts can emerge as a result of leaders and individuals establishing their roles in the group
What is the norming component of the linear perspective theory?
Where hostility of team/individuals is replaced with solidarity & cooperation, conflicts are resolved, unity forms, athletes work together towards a common goal, and players strive the economy of effort & task effectiveness
What is the performing component of the linear perspective theory?
Athletes band together & channel their energies for team success, the team focuses on problem solving, structural issues are resolved, relationships are stabilized, and roles are clearly defined
What is the cyclical (life cycle) perspective?
Perspective that commonly assumes that groups follow a life cycle (i.e., birth, growth, & death)
What is the main element of the cyclical perspective?
That as a group develops, it psychologically prepares itself for its own breakup
What type of group does the cyclical perspective have relevance in?
Exercise groups. Usually ones that last typically 10-15 weeks
True or False. Similar to exercise groups, recreational teams typically play for one season and will break-up.
What is the pendular perspective?
Perspective that emphasizes that shifts occur between relationships during the growth and development phases of groups
What does the pendular perspective assume?
That groups do not progressively move through the stages of development linerally from their formation
What are the 5 stages in the pendular perspective?
Orientation, differentiation & conflict, resolution & cohesion, differentiation & conflict again, and termination
What happens during the orientation stage in pendular perspective?
Cohesion and feelings of unity are high
What happens during the first differentiation and conflict stage of the pendular perspective?
Subdivision and conflict occurs
What happens during the resolution and conflict stage of the pendular perspective?
Cohesion starts to increase
What happens during the second differentiation and conflict stage of the pendular perspective?
Unity is weakened
What happens during the termination stage of the pendular perspective?
High cohesion will result in success, low cohesion will result in no success
What are group roles?
Certain roles that will develop when becoming a team, specifically for the participants, athletes, or coaches
What are the two types of group roles?
Formal and informal
What are formal roles?
Roles that are dictated by the nature and structure of organization
Who usually has formal roles?
Athletic directors, coaches, team captains, and fitness instructors
What are informal roles?
Roles that are emerged from interactions among team members
Who usually has informal roles?
Comedians, enforcers, mentors, team players, star players, verbal informal leaders, and nonverbal informal leaders
What three components are group roles dependent on?
Role clarity, role acceptance, and role conflicts
What does role clarity do?
Helps reduce roles ambiguity and increases athlete satisfaction
What is role acceptance?
It refers to players who are more willing to accept their roles if they perceive their responsibilities contribute to team success
True or False. Second team members can feel left out.
What are role conflicts?
Conflicts that exist in groups due to lack of time, understanding, or motivation to complete a goal
True or False. Role conflicts can stem from different people having different expectations.
What is a norm?
A level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief
What do can group norms to do to individuals?
Can cause individuals to be pressured to adhere to a group's norms whether they are relevant or not
True or False. Group norms are only formally established.
False. Group norms can be formally established or informally developed by a group.
What are some examples of group norms?
Rookies having to carry veterans bags, athletes dressing a certain way, and athletes having a certain hairstyle
What is the norm for productivity?
It's the standard for effort and performance that's accepted by a team
If a player arrives early and leaves late, this is the
Expectation for the entire team (norm)
True or False. Formal and informal leaders can be enlisted to set positive examples.
True or False. Norms should not be too clear.
False. Norms should be clear.
In evaluating a team performance, Steiner's Model of Actual Productivity shows the relationship between
Individuals abilities or resources on a team and how team members interact
Actual productivity =
Potential productivity - losses attributable to faulty group processes
Potential productivity refers to a team's
Best possible performance given each player's ability, knowledge, and skill along with task
Steiner's model indicates that
Individual ability is most important
True or False. In Steiner's model, it's believed that teams made up of the best individual's will achieve the most success.
Steiner's model implies that a team's productivity does not usually
Match their potential productivity
What are the two types of faulty group processes in Steiner's model?
Motivation and coordination losses
When do motivation losses occur?
When team members do not give 100% effort
When do coordination losses occur?
When the timing between teammates is off, or when ineffective strategies are used
True or False. When evaluating team performance, two negative effects related to group performance have been identified.
What is the Ringlemann Effect?
Theory where individual effort is reduced based on the number of people in the group
In the Ringlemann Effect, it's believed that when there are more people in a group,
There is less individual effort is put forth
In the Ringlemann Effect, the differences in actual and potential performance were mostly attributable to
Motivational losses, but coordination losses also occurred
In the Ringlemann Effect, some of the performance decreases that occurred as the group grew larger were
What is social loafing?
Reduced individual effort in a group setting
What causes social loafing?
Losses in motivation due to the diffusion of responsibility
What is an example of social loafing?
Group projects in which a few students do all of the work, and the others are "along for the ride"
How can you overcome the Ringlemann Effect and social loafing?
Emphasizing importance of individual pride & unique contributions, increases identifiability of individual performances, having individual/team meeting to discuss loafing, and dividing the teams into subgroups
What does dividing teams into subgroups do?
On the positive side it increases recognition, effort & motivation. On the negative side it can cause social cliques to form.
What is cohesion?
A dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or the satisfaction of its members affective needs
What are the four components cohesion is said to be?
Multidimensional, dynamic, instrumental, and affective
Why is cohesion multidimensional?
There are many factors that relate to why a group sticks together
Why is cohesion dynamic?
Cohesion can change over time
Why is cohesion instrumental?
Cohesion can cause groups to be created for a purpose
Why is cohesion affective?
Cohesion can help group member interactions produce feelings
Cohesion is a combination of
Task and social cohesion
What is task cohesion?
The degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals
What is social cohesion?
The degree to which members of a group like each other and enjoy each others company
What are the 5 major factors that are outlined in Carron's Model of Cohesion?
Environmental factors, personal factors, leadership factors, team factors, and outcomes
What do environmental factors refer to in Carron's model of cohesion?
The normative focus holding a group together
What are some examples of the environmental factors from Carron's model of cohesion?
Players under contract, athletic scholarships, family member expectations, geographical restrictions, and exercisers paying a fee for their class
What do personal factors refer to in Carron's model of cohesion?
The individual characteristics of group members
What are the 3 categories included in the personal factors of Carron's model of cohesion?
Demographic attributes, cognitions & motives, and behavior
What do leadership factors refer to in Carron's model of cohesion?
The leadership style and behaviors that leaders exhibit and the relationships established within their groups
Why are leadership roles specifically vital to team cohesion?
Because clear and consistent communication from coaches and captains regarding team goals, tasks, and member roles leads to better cohesion
What do team factors refer to in Carron's model of cohesion?
To group task characteristics, group productivity norms, the desire for group success, group roles, group position, and team stability
Groups that stay together over time and have a strong desire for group success exhibit
High levels of cohesion
True or False. Shared experiences are not important for developing and maintaining cohesion.
False. Shared experiences are important for developing and maintaining cohesion.
When do outcomes occur in Carron's model of cohesion?
At both the team and individual levels
How are outcomes seen at the team level?
In terms of team stability, absolute effectiveness, and relative effectiveness
How are outcomes seen at the individual level?
In terms of behavioral consequences, satisfaction, relative effectiveness, and absolute effectiveness
Intuitively, we assume that the higher a teams level of cohesion is,
The greater the team's success
Research has generally found a positive relationship between
Cohesion and performance, with sports teams having the strongest relationship
Carron et al. (2002) found that both task and social cohesion
Increases with performance
Carron et al. (2002) found that more cohesiveness is associated with
Better performance in both coactive and interactive sports
What are some examples of coactive sports?
Golf, bowling, and track & field
What are some examples of interactive sports?
Volleyball, basketball, and soccer
What does direction of causality refer to?
Whether cohesion leads to performance success, or if performance success leads to cohesion
True or False. Research suggests the relationship between cohesion and performance is circular.
It is believed that increased cohesion leads to better performance, and that better performance
Brings teams together and leads to increased cohesion
The effect of performance on cohesion appears to be
Stronger than that of cohesion on performance in general
What other factors are associated with cohesion?
Team satisfaction, conformity, adherence, social support, stability, and group goals
Why is team satisfaction associated with cohesion?
Teams that are higher in cohesion tend to have greater team satisfaction
Why is conformity associated with cohesion?
The more cohesive a group is, the greater the influence is has on its individual members to conform to the group norms
Why is adherence associated with cohesion?
Exercise classes and teams with high cohesion have higher attendance, fewer dropouts, fewer late arrivals, and have higher efficacy beliefs related to exercise than those with low cohesion
Why is social support associated with cohesion?
There is a positive relationship with the social support an individual receives and their evaluations of group cohesion
Why is stability associated with cohesion?
Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption than teams lower in cohesion
True or False. Stability is associated with cohesion because it is believed that teams that stay together longer tend to be more cohesive, which leads to performance improvements.
Why are group goals associated with cohesion?
Group goals can enhance a groups feelings of unity and cohesion
In what ways can coaches and leaders help build team cohesion?
Communicating effectively, explaining roles in team success, developing pride in subunits, setting challenging group goals, employing transformational leadership, avoiding excessive turnovers, conducting team meetings, and getting to know their participants
How does communicating effectively help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It opens lines of communication that can alleviate many potential problems
How does explaining roles in team success help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It outlines roles and expresses the importance of each players role
How does developing pride in subunits help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It encourages group identity and avoids social cliques
How does setting challenging group goals help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
The goals set a high norm for productivity and keep the team focused on what needs to be accomplished
How does employing transformational leadership help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It sets high performance expectations, sets high group goals, sets high appropriate role models, and displays inspirational motivation
How does avoiding excessive turnovers help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It help make newcomers feel welcome and a part of the team
How does conducting team meetings help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It allows open and honest expressions of athletes, learning experiences, and help to re-define goals
How does getting to know their participants help coaches and leaders build team cohesion?
It creates an understanding for team members motives, roles, views, and needs, which is a cornerstone of the team-building process
In what ways can group members build team cohesion?
By getting to know other group members, helping other group members, providing positive encouragement to group members, being responsible, communicating openly and honestly, resolving conflict immediately, and giving 100% effort at all times
How does getting to know their group members help group members build team cohesion?
It makes it easier to accept individual differences
How does helping other group members help group members build team cohesion?
It creates team spirit and brings teammates closer together
How does providing positive encouragement to group members help group members build team cohesion?
Supporting the teammates rather than being negative and critical will go a long way in building trust
Why should group members be responsible when building team cohesion?
Instead of habitually blaming others, group members should try to make positive, constructive changes that will help them get back on track
Why should group members communicate openly and honestly when trying to build team cohesion?
Team members should make sure the coach is receiving accurate information about what is happening within the team
Why should group members resolve conflicts immediately when trying to build team cohesion?
Team members should take initiative and resolve situations to help clear the air
Why should group members give 100% effort at all times when trying to build team cohesion?
Setting a good example through hard work will usually have a positive effect on team unity
What is leadership defined as?
The process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common purpose
What do leader characteristics involve?
They involve facilitating motivation in others, where the focus is on getting others to collaborate in pursuit of a common goal
What are some of the main leadership characteristics?
Leaders create a sense of vision for the group, motivate others to join them, generate optimism & trust, develop other leaders, and achieve results
A leader knows where the group is going, or wants to go, and provides
Direction to help get the group there
Who is more concerned with planning, organizing, scheduling, budgeting, staffing, and recruiting?
Who is more concerned with the direction of an organization/team, including its goals and objectives?
Effective management is different from providing the
Leadership needed for players & teams to grow and mature
What are the three functions that leaders serve?
They ensure the demands of the organization are satisfied through achievement of group goals & objectives, they help facilitate group member motivation, and they ensure that group member needs are satisfied
What is a prescribed leader?
A leader that is appointed by someone in authority
What are some examples of prescribed leaders?
Coaches, managers, and athletic trainers
What are emergent leaders?
Leaders that simply emerge from the group or take charge
What is an example of an emergent leader?
A captain on a recreational team
What do relationship-oriented leaders focus on?
They focus on developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships
What characteristics do relationship-oriented leaders strive to have?
Good communication, positive interactions, and making members feel good
What do task-oriented leaders focus on?
They focus on setting goals and getting the job done
What type of leadership behavior is characterized as an instructional behavior?
What does the training leadership behavior do?
It attempts to improve performance through providing technical instructions on skills, techniques, and strategies
Which types of leadership behaviors are characterized as decision-making styles?
Democratic and autocratic behaviors
What does democratic behavior do?
It allows athletes to participate in decision about the group's goals, practice methods, and strategies
What does autocratic behavior do?
It makes decisions independently and athlete input is generally not welcome
Which types of leadership behaviors are characterized as motivational tendencies?
Social support and positive feedback
What does social support do?
It shows concern for athletes' wellbeing, and established warm relationships. It generally exceeds beyond the athletic context
What does positive feedback do?
It consistently praises or rewards athletes for good performance, and is generally limited to the athletic context
Which leadership behavior exceeds athletic context?
Which leadership behavior is limited to athletic context?
What is the cognitive-mediational model?
It's a theory where coach leadership behaviors are a function of their own personal characteristics, which are mediated by situational factors and the meaning athletes attribute to those coaching behaviors
What are the two types of coaching behaviors in the cognitive-mediational model?
Reactive and spontaneous behaviors
How are reactive behaviors formed?
They are responses of a specific player behavior
What is an example of how reactive behavior can be formed?
When a coach offers instruction to a player after an error
How are spontaneous behaviors formed?
They are responses initiated by the coach
What is an example of how spontaneous behavior can be formed?
A coach yelling encouragements as their team runs onto the field
Generally, athletes rate their teammates and their coaches more positively when they play for a coach who uses
High amounts of general technical instruction
What is the multidimensional model of sport leadership?
It's a theory that states that leader effectiveness in sport will vary depending on the characteristics of the athletes, leader behaviors, and constraints of the situation
In the multidimensional model of sport leadership, athlete satisfaction and performance depend on which three types of leader behavior?
Actual, preferred, and required behaviors
True or False. Situational, leader, and member characteristics lead to actual, preferred, and required leader behaviors.
What is the key prediction within the multidimensional model of sport leadership?
That optimal performance and satisfaction are achieved when a leader's required, preferred, and actual behaviors are consistent
What is required leader behavior?
Type of behavior required based on the audience
What is an example of required leader behavior?
A coach will behave differently in front of athletes, fellow coaches, and parents
What is actual leader behavior?
Type of behavior that a leader exhibits influenced by group preferences and the demands of the situation
What is an example of actual leader behavior?
If a team's goal is to win, a coach may adopt performance-oriented behaviors
What is preferred leader behavior?
Type of behavior where specific leader behaviors are stemmed from member preferences
What is an example of preferred leader behavior?
If athletes want a coach of a specific age, sex, level of experience, and certain personality traits
True or False. In the preferred leader behavior, personality variables along with age, sex, and experience will influence a member's preference for guidance, support, and feedback.
What is the transformational leadership theory?
Theory that occurs when a leader takes a visionary position, motivates & inspires people to follow that vision, works together to excel, and achieves more than they thought they could
What are the four components in the transformational leadership theory?
Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration
What is the idealized component of the transformational leadership theory?
It believes that a leader is a role model to followers through earning their trust, admiration, and respect
What is the inspirational motivation component of the transformational leadership theory?
It conveys a vision of where the group is going and encourages them to take on challenging tasks
What is the intellectual stimulation component of the transformational leadership theory?
It encourages new ways to solve problems
What is the individualized consideration component of the transformational leadership theory?
It recognizes the needs of each group member
What does the servant leadership in sport theory state?
It states that leaders focus more on the growth and development of their followers than the organization itself
In the servant leadership in sport theory, leaders are described as
Caring, good listeners, empathic, stewards, and strong community builders
True or False. In the servant leadership in sport theory, it is predicted that organizational goals will be better achieved if leaders focus on follower development.
Which type of leadership have kinesiology professional adopted, in order to help participant improve their health, and to enhance their learning & performance?
The servant leadership in sport
What are the four components of effective leadership?
Leaders' qualities, leadership styles, situational factors, and followers' qualities
What type of qualities are successful leaders said to have?
Integrity, flexibility, loyalty, confidence, accountability, preparedness, resourcefulness, self-discipline, and patience
True or False. The qualities of a successful leader will guarantee a leader.
False. The qualities of a successful leader do not guarantee a leader, but the qualities may be needed in varying amounts depending on the preferences of group members.
What is a democratic leadership style?
It's a style that is typically athlete centered, cooperative, and relationship oriented
What is an autocratic leadership style?
It's a style that is usually win oriented, tightly structured, and task oriented
Which leadership style is relationship oriented?
Which leadership style is task oriented?
True or False. Leaders need to be either democratic or autocratic in their leadership styles.
False. Leaders do not need to be one or the other.
True or False. Leaders should integrate both democratic and autocratic to leadership styles to utilize the style that is most effective for a given situation.
What kinds of situational factors make up effective leadership?
Team/individual sports, interactive/coactive sports, team size, available time, and a traditional leadership style
What does the situational factor of team/individual sports show for effective leadership?
That team sport athletes prefer more autocratic leaders
What does the situational factor of interactive/coactive sports show for effective leadership?
That interactive athletes prefer more task-oriented leaders
What does the situational factor of team size show for effective leadership?
That larger teams make democratic style more difficult
What does the situational factor of available time show for effective leadership?
That if there is little available time, a task-oriented leader is preferred
What does the situational factor of a traditional leader style show for effective leadership?
That groups with a traditional leadership style will find it difficult to change
As athletes become older and athletically mature (college aged) they prefer more
Autocratic and socially supportive coaches
True or False. Female athletes tend to prefer a democratic coaching style.
True or False. Interactive team sport athletes prefer a democratic coaching style.
False. Interactive team sport athletes prefer an autocratic coaching style.
Within the same team, defensive players prefer more
Democratic, autocratic, and social support behaviors than offensive players
Leadership is not only a science, but an
Art influenced by wisdom, intelligence, and creativity
What implications can coaches and group members do/learn in order to become an effective leader?
They can make a commitment to read about & observe effective leaders, they can focus on attributes & characteristics that make a leader effective, and they can learn how effective leaders work together and interact with situational factors
What is combat psychology?
A psychological theory and research for mental skills training to optimize performance in soldier tasks associated with fighting an opposing force during lethal conflict
True or False. Combat psychology can be applied to the sports psychology perspective.
What other perspective are available that relate to combat psychology?
Human factors, clinical mental health, organizational psychology, neuroscience, and motor behavior
Why should we study combat psychology?
It's an example on how to apply sport psychology to a non-sport setting
Players assessing each other's strengths and weaknesses refers to
Resistance to a leader, control by the group, and interpersonal conflicts emerging from establishing roles refers to
Athletes working towards a common goal and striving for economy of effort & task effectiveness refers to
Athletes banding together to channel their energies for team success and focus on problem solving refers to
True or False. The stage of forming, storming, norming, and performing describe the pendular perspective of team development.
False. They describe the linear perspective of group development.
True or False. Generally when becoming a team, athletes will develop certain roles.
_________ roles emerge from interactions among team members.
_______ roles are dictated by the nature and structure of organization.
Steiner's model of productivity shows the relationship between
Individual resources on a team and team member interaction
True or False. Cohesion does not change over time.
False. It does change over time (dynamic)
True or False. Social cohesion reflects the degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals.
False. It reflects the degree to which members of a group like each other and enjoy each others company.
Environmental factors refer to
Normative forces holding a team together
Personal factors refer to
Individual characteristics of group members
Leadership factors refer to
Leadership style and behaviors that leaders exhibit and the relationships established within their groups
Team factors refer to
Group task characteristics, group productivity norms, desire for group success, group roles, group position, and team stability
True or False. More cohesiveness is associated with better performance in coactive sports.
True or False. Teams higher in cohesion tend to have lower team satisfaction.
False. Teams higher in cohesion tend to have higher team satisfaction.
What psychological constructs work best within the context of soldier performance in combat?
Concentration, confidence, motivation, stress/anxiety, and arousal
True or False. Combat-induced stress can be a commander's ally or foe.
What is PTSD?
A psychiatric disorder triggered by exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor
True or False. PTSD only lasts for a couple days.
False. PTSD is chronic and can last for years.
What is one common psychiatric response to combat?
Combat stress reaction, or battle fatigue
What is combat stress reaction defined as?
It's any response to battle stress that renders a soldier combat ineffective
If the symptoms of combat stress reaction are known,
Early symptomatic soldiers can be identified
True or False. Leadership has a significant impact on the extent and severity of combat stress reactions within a unit.
What do soldiers reflect on when looking back at surviving combat?
They reflect on how they have changed and how they can move on
Soldiers must be able to
Grapple with emotional tasks that are exempt from most occupations
True or False. Soldiers explained that deployment can have underlying benefits by honing one's life to a single-minded focus.
What was the goal of Adler et al.'s article?
To guide the field of military psychology in the development of evidence-based support for service members
According to Bolman & Deal (2013), what do teams need to achieve?
They need to achieve team goals
According to Bolman & Deal (2013), how can teams achieve team goals?
By objective realism of great managers, and the vision & passion of great leaders
What are the seven traits of elite captains?
Extreme doggedness & focus in competition, aggressive play that tests the limits of the rules, a willingness to do thankless jobs in the shadows, a low-key, practical, and democratic communication style, passionate nonverbal displays to motivate others, strong convictions and the courage to stand apart, and ironclad emotional control
What are the four primary components of transformational leadership?
Idealized influence, inspirational motivational, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration
According to the article, emotionally intelligent leadership is predicated upon
Enhanced understandings of self and others for max. performance
True or False. Leadership is limited to individuals who possess specific qualities or characteristics or behave in certain ways.
True or False. Coaches should empower their athletes; help them develop the skills and confidence needed to fulfill their responsibilities and roles.
True or False. The key to achieving positive long-term changes in their own and other's behaviors lies in the commitment to leadership development by the coach.
True or False. For coaches, the most direct strategy for success is to develop the leadership of their athletes.
What do the components of the D.E.S.C. method stand for?
Describe, Express, Specify, and Consequences
True or False. According to Dugan (2006), leaders are born, not made.
False. Leaders can be made.
What is leadership (comparative listing)?
Process-oriented, awareness & skills that can be taught/learned/practiced/improved by anyone, uses multiple lenses to interpret people & situations to influence behavior & manage relationships, layered, strengthened by diversity, and enhanced by specific goals and clearly defined collective achievement
What is not leadership (comparative listing)?
A quick fix, appointment of title/position/event/result, limited to individuals who possess specific qualities or characteristics or behave in certain ways, exclusive/narrow-minded/stereotypical, management, or linear/hierarchial
According to the article, what does coaching behavior include?
Leading themselves first, providing a roadmap, connecting, empowering, and cultivating
According to the article, coaches must empower players by giving them leadership responsibilities such as
Running the warm-up in practice, running an entire off-season practice, organizing pre-practice or post-practice, calling refocusing time-outs during practice, managing team logistics, facilitating appropriate team-building activities, and making difficult decisions about keeping troubled/uncommitted team members on the roster
Leadership is as much about emotional intelligence as it is about
Analysis and strategy
What is true of the communication process?
Its an all, one-way communication that follows the same basic process
What is the communication process?
One person decided to send a message, that person translates thoughts into the message, the message is channeled to the receiver, the receiver interprets the message, and the receiver thinks about the message and responds internally
True or False. Although the process of communication is the same, the purposes of communication can vary.
What are some examples of the purpose behind communication?
Trying to convince someone that they can lose weight by regularly exercising, trying to psych up your team before a tough opponent, and dealing with a conflict between two members of a team
All communication contains
Content as well as relation messages
What are the types of communication?
Interpersonal, nonverbal, and intrapersonal
What is interpersonal communication?
Communication that involves at least two people and a meaningful exchange
In interpersonal communication, one individual sends a message to
Whom the message was intended
True or False. In interpersonal communication, sometimes the message is received by someone for whom it was not intended, and the original message becomes disorted.
What is nonverbal communication?
Communication that involves body language, tone & speed of voice, or facial expressions
What is intrapersonal communication?
Communication that we have with ourselves
In intrapersonal communication, internal dialogue (self-talk) affects
Motivation and behavior
Verbal messages should be sent
Clearly, and received & interpreted correctly
Essentially, with verbal messages, we must pick the
Right time and place to deliver our communication
True or False. Communication always happens at the right time.
False. Communication often occurs during the worst possible times.
Breakdowns in verbal messages occur before
Messages are sent ineffectively, are not received, or are misinterpreted
True or False. People are often unaware of the nonverbal cues they are communicating.
It is estimated that _______ of human communication is nonverbal.
Nonverbal messages are less likely to be
Under conscious control
True or False. Nonverbal messages are typically harder to hide than verbal messages.
True or False. Nonverbal messages do not give away our unconscious feelings or attitudes.
False. Nonverbal messages do give away unconscious feelings and attitudes.
What are some examples of nonverbal messages?
Physical appearance, posture, gestures, facial expressions, and voice characteristics
Why is physical appearance a nonverbal message?
First impressions often come from physical appearance
What is an example of physical appearance being a nonverbal message?
A physical therapist showing up to work in informal attire
Why is posture a nonverbal message?
How we carry ourselves sends a message
What is an example of posture being a nonverbal message?
Having a slouched posture instead of standing tall with shoulders back
What are gestures a nonverbal message?
They convey messages whether or not we want them to
What is an example of gestures being a nonverbal message?
Arms being folded to express you are closed to others, or hands behind your head to show superiority
Why are facial expressions considered nonverbal messages?
Similes and other facial expressions can invite verbal communication & elicit feedback on how effective your communication has been
True or False. Eye contact usually means that the listener is interested in your message.
Why are voice characteristics considered nonverbal messages?
The sound of a voice can powerfully reinforce, or undercut verbal communication
Voice quality often betrays our ___________ revealing what we might not say verbally.
True feelings, moods, and attitudes
What are the guidelines for sending messages?
Be direct, complete & specific, clear & consistent, focus on one thing at a time, and be consistent with nonverbal messaging
Why do you need to be complete and specific when sending messages?
To provide all information an individual needs to understand your message
Why do you need to be clear and consistent when sending messages?
To avoid double messages
True or False. Double messages can send contradictory meanings, and usually the person sending them is afraid to be direct.
What does focusing on one thing at a time do for you when sending a message?
It organizes your thoughts before speaking
Why do you need to be consistent with nonverbal messaging when sending messages?
Because if you tell a player the mistake they made is okay, but then you body language says differently, you are sending conflicting messages to the player
What is active listening?
It involves attending to main and supportive ideas, acknowledging & responding, giving appropriate feedback, and paying attention to the speakers total communication
When using active listening nonverbally, it also include making
Direct eye contact and nodding to confirm that you understand the speaker
Essentially, in active listening, the listener shows concern for
The content and intent of the message, and for the feelings of the sender
One way to practice active listening is to
Paraphrase what the speaker has said
Active listening is similar to
True or False. Hearing should sometimes be mistaken for listening.
False. Hearing should not be mistaken for listening.
True or False. Hearing something does not mean that you are listening to the meaning of the message.
True or False. If you find your self not listening to the speaker, you should just ignore them.
False. You should practice focusing on your concentration to the speaker.
How can you improve group communication in teams?
By using designed programs to improve interpersonal-communication between team members and coaches
During team meeting, communication should involve
Everyone being receptive to the opinions of others, be constructive, information should be kept confidential, and everyone should have a chance to speak
True or False. When in a team meeting, communication should be destructive.
False. Communication should be constructive, not destructive.
What is confrontation?
It's usually a face-to-face discussion among people in conflict
Confrontations typically arise from
Breakdowns in communication or a power struggle
Confrontation has a negative connotation, but when used properly is can help
Both parties understand the issues more clearly (clear the air)
True or False. You shouldn't avoid confrontations when you're angry.
False. You should avoid confrontations when you're angry.
True or False. Confrontations should be used to examine an individual's behavior and its consequences.
True or False. With confrontation, the issues is with a behavior, not the individual.
What is the sandwich approach in delivering constructive criticism?
It's a technique for offering constructive feedback in a sensitive, yet effective manner
What are the three sequential elements of the sandwich approach?
A positive statement, future-oriented instructions, and a compliment
It is critical that we are observant of our
Nonverbal cues, as well as those of others, as a rich source of information
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