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Terms in this set (230)
The technology used in creating, maintaining, and making information accessible.
IT Professional Roles
Administration and Support
Maintains all aspects of the system including hardware, software, and programming.
In charge of all aspects of the computer network
Focuses on the design, development, and support of database management systems (DBMSs).
Installs, configures, and administers firewall security to protect systems and proactively work to stop intrusions.
Installs, configures, maintains, secures, and troubleshoots web severs.
Support IT Professionals
Help desk and training.
Defines the transition of data to information to knowledge to wisdom. (Data Information Knowledge Wisdom)
Data in DIKW
The input directly received by the user (or computer). It is generally not usable until it has been converted into a relevant form.
Information in DIKW
Having been inferred from data; one or more processes have been applied to the data to transform it into a more useful form.
Knowledge in DIKW
Information that has been put to use; information placed into a context. Refined information such that the user of the knowledge is able to call forth only relevant portions of information when needed.
Wisdom in DIKW
Provides a social setting to knowledge; an understanding of the "why". Can only come by having both knowledge and experience.
A collection of data and information used to support the management of an organization. Also refers to the technical components and human resources that enable the assembly, storage, and processing of data and the delivery of information. This has existed for a lot longer than computers.
Characteristics of Quality Data
Relevance - the data being used must apply directly to the decision being made
Timely - data must be efficient and must be provided in a timely manner
Thorough - the data must be complete
Accurate - data should be captured only once, where possible and should be captured as close to the point of activity as possible.
Reliable - data should reflect stable and consistent data collection processes across collections points and over time
The Input-Procession-Output-Storage Cycle
Raw data is entered by the user.
Raw data is organized or structured for usefulness.
Information is output so user can see results.
Processed information is stored for permanent record.
A collection of components that work together to meet the needs of the user; typically categorized as either hardware, software, networks, or users.
Physical components of a computer system which include the system unit and its components and peripheral devices; tangible aspects of the computer.
Computer programs that tell the computer what to do--how to execute commands and process information
A collection of computers and resources connected by various media so that they can communicate with each other.
Those who use a computer.
Systems Software and Applications Software
Evolution of Users
First users were the engineers who built and programmed computers, then employees who had received specialized training were users, and now today, anyone and everyone can be a user.
Rules provided by which networks communicate with each other.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Most commonly used protocol; is required of all computers that communicate over the Internet.
A collection of protocols. TCP/IP is an example.
Components of a Computer
CPU, Memory and Storage, Peripheral Devices
Executes programs' instructions and commands various components in the computer. Referred to as the "chip".
Stores the programs being executed and the data they are using.
All peripheral devices where long term storage devices are used.
Permits information to move between each component; electrical channels that enable communication among the electronic components
Critical component of all computer based systems; consists of most of the hardware the computer needs in order to run; comes in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Internal Components of the System Unit
Case, Internal Bays, Buses, Ports, Hard Drive, Motherboard, CPU, CPU Cooler, Memory Module (RAM), Power Supply Unit (PSU), Expansion Slots/Cards
Parts of the CPU
Control Unit (CU) - retrieves the instructions and the raw data that is input and coordinates or controls the sending of those instructions and data to the ALU
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - does the actual processing of the data; completing mathematical calculations and logical operations to process the data and converting the input of the keyboard text entry to output displayed on the screen
Controls the speed at which instructions are processed.
Stands for Random Access Memory.
It temporarily stores data before it is processed and sent to your screen or printer.
It is volatile (means data or information stored disappears when the computer is turned off or loses power).
You can choose the amount of RAM your computer has.
Types of RAM
Dynamic RAM (DRAM) - typically called main memory
Static RAM (SRAM) - cache memory and registers
BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System; ROM stands for Read Only Memory.
Typically stored in ROM chip on the motherboard.
Is software not hardware, ("basic" operating system that runs when the computer is first turned on).
Runs tests of memory and the CPU and initializes hardware components so that the actual Operating System can be loaded from the hard disk.
Can't choose the amount or contents.
1st Generation of Computers
Vacuum tubes, relay switches, the need to program in machine language
2nd Generation of Computers
Transistor components, magnetic core memory, smaller size, easier to program, disk drives and drums, called mainframe computers
3rd Generation of Computers
Silicon chips (known as ICs - integrated circuits), reduced cost, called mini computers, networks introduced via dumb terminals
4th Generation of Computers
Single chip processor, called microcomputer, first personal computer, rudimentary computer graphics, home use
Doubling of transistor count roughly every 18 - 24 months (exponential increase); observation, not physical law
Evolution of Storage
Punch cards, magnetic tape, hard disks, floppy disks, optical discs, flash memory, cloud storage
Written for a specific machine by the engineers who built and ran the computers; no need for OS since only one program could run at a time
Easier than machine but still required detailed, precise low level instructions
Language Translator Programs
Function is to translate one program language into another; take source code and convert it to another form; source code by itself cannot be read by a computer
Improve language translator; requires that the components of the software all be defined before compilation can begin; code is more effcient
Programmer is limited to high level control constructs such as while loops, for loops, and if/else statements and not allowed to use primitive GOTO statements
Object Oriented Programming
Initially introduced in Smalltalk in 1970's and early 80's
Runs inside a special environment; is better for testing
Small programs that place Linux commands or DOS batch files into a file
The computer that the user is using; physically present with
A computer being accessed over the network
Connects multiple computers together; broadcasts the transmission, sending the data to every device in the network
More functional than a hub; records and recognizes the local network addresses (MAC or IP) or all computers connected to it
Connects multiple networks together; can be used to directly connect computers to a network; will relay messages to computers with appropriate IP addresses
Wireless Access Point
Can be connected to hub, switch, or router; many routers now also act as a wireless access point; sends out a wireless signal so computers on the network can connect without a cable
Circuit Switched Network
Requires that a full pathway, or circuit, be est. before transmission can begin and maintained during the entire transmission
Packet Switched Network
A message's pathway is only est. as it is sent; the choice of pathway is based on availability and amount of message traffic
Creates and maintains client network connections to remote servers
Virtual Machine (VM)
A software emulator program that permits a computer user to use multiple computers and multiple platforms without the expense of purchasing multiple computers; allows a user to run software for different OS platform in their computer that would not otherwise be able to run that software; this allows multiple users on a network to access the software to support collaboration.
Computers that have greater hard disk storage, faster response time and are used to respond to request from other computers on the network
Contains one or more servers; client is a computer that will request information from another computer; server is a computer that takes requests and responds with the requested information; the software used facilitates communication with remote servers
Sends files over the network at the request of clients.
Responds over LAN, within one location/site.
Support both application software and data files.
Stores data files (web pages) and programs (scripts).
Responds from anywhere on the Internet.
Responds to queries by pulling from the database.
Typically only to local clients.
Monitors print jobs
Two email servers communicate with each other
Like web server or file server in that requests are for files and responses are the files
Link between two resources.
Simplest for of a network.
Limits how devices can communicate with each other
Devices connected along a single cable.
Size of network is restricted.
Each device is connected to a central devices such as a hub or switch.
Each device is connected directly to its neighbors, and messages are forwarded from device to device until the proper destination is reached.
Every device is connected directly to every other device in the network.
Domain Name Server (DNS)
Used to translate from an IP alias to an IP address
Parts of URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Protocol, Domain name, Resource/Filename
Identifies the server on which the web page can be found
Domain Name Parts
Top level domain (TLD) name and Host name
Identifies the organization that is responsible for the information on the page or provides the server space where the information is stored
TLD(Top Level Domain) Name
Always ends with a period and a three or two letter extension which signifies the type of organization or country associated with the page
Indicates the name of the file you are accessing, or the location of the document on the server
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
Requires that data bet kept secure so that they are not accidentally provided or obtained by unauthorized users
Requires that data is correct
Requires that information is available when needed
Data Integrity Efforts
1st - Must include a component that ensures the accuracy of the collected data
2nd - Must be entered into the system accurately
3rd - Data modification must be tracked
Strategic Risk Analysis
1. Identify the organization's information assets
2. Identify vulnerabilities of each asset
3. Determine threats
4. Prioritizing risks
5. Develop and enact policies that will reduce threats
Information Security Classifications
Public - available through public sources; includes names and addresses
Sensitive - not considered a threat to a person's privacy if others learn of it; include email addresses
Private - information that could be a threat if disclosed to others; includes social security and credit card numbers
Confidential - information that an organization will keep secret; includes patentable information and business plans
Defense in Depth
Protecting every layer that surrounds data
Emails to people to redirect them to a website to perform some operation but the website is a fake and just takes the information
An attacker issues a SQL command to a web server as part of the URL or as input to a form on a company's website; web server might pass the command onto the database which then allows potentially anything to be done to the database
Placing malicious code into the buffer so that it can be executed once stored in memory; oldest and most well known software exploit; software engineers can protect against this when writing code
When an individual obtains unauthorized access to a host
White Hat Hacker
Informs companies of potential problems with software so companies can fix
Black Hat Hacker
Individuals with malicious intent who violate security in order to commit crimes or acts of terrorism
Grey Hat Hacker
Engage in both white and black hat types of hacking activities
Allows you to obtain anything being sent over a network if the data being transmitted isn't encrypted
Software that attaches itself to another legitimate software application
Self contained programs that do not need other programs to propagate across computers and computer networks
Type of virus that completely replaces an existing application and takes the name of the taken over file
Denial of Service (DOS)
One or more attackers attempt to flood a server with so many incoming messages that the server is unable to handle legitimate business
Can be either software or hardware; hardware is a dedicated server; software contains a list of the rules that describe the types of messages that should either be permitted to make it through, or those that should be blocked
Attempts to identify if a file contains a virus or some form of malware
Ensures proper storage of data by providing a means so that data is available even when storage devices are damaged or offline
Idea of obfuscating the information that resides on a computer or sent over a network so that if it is intercepted the hacker will be unable to use the information
Symmetric Key Encryption
Uses the same key for performing the encryption and decryption
Public Key Encryption
Uses two keys, a public and private key for performing encryption and decryption
Users learn how to protect their passwords and other security measures
Proving you are who you say you are which can be done by: what you know, what you have (two factor authentication)
Role-based Access Control
Ensures that the user gains access only to the resources that the user should be able to access
Computer Network Advantages
1. Cost savings benefits
2. Increased efficiency and productivity
3. Increased facilitation of communication
Consists of programs that end users run to accomplish tasks
Consists of programs that make up the OS; software that directly supports the computer system itself
Works with hardware to provide a network service
Software that is stored on an individual computer
A LAN that uses the Internet Protocol
Offers, as a service, the ability to offload computation and storage from your local computer
Primary task is to allow a computer user to easily access the hardware and software of a computer system
Core components of the OS that is loaded when the computer is first booted.
Provide specific interfaces between the OS running a computer and hardware devices.
An interface for the user, often personalized for that given user, that provides access to the kernel.
Os programs that are usually started when the OS is loaded and initialized, but they run in the background. Also called daemons.
Programs that allow the user to monitor and improve system performance.
Acts as a giant cache of web pages that anyone in the organization has recently retrieved
Software purchased from a vendor; also known as commercial
Provides a trial version of the software.
Usually software that has become obsolete; is free
Software that has been moved into the public domain; can be used however you feel
Created in the Open Source Community and made freely available as source code
Protect an original work (in its tangible, expressed form), but not the ideas behind the work for the duration of the author's life plus 70 years.
Protect the creation of inventive concepts as well as the tangible work product for 20 years from the filing date
End User License Agreement (EULA)
Gives the purchaser the right to use the software
Uses base 10 to represent numbers (0 - 9)
Uses base 2 system (0 and 1)
8 bits; a single character of text in a computer
Every value is represented with some combination of 8 digits (0 - 7)
Uses a base 16
ASCII and Unicode
A program that takes one program, written in a high level language, and creates a machine language program as output
Translates the entire program, creating an executable program which can be run at a later time
Takes the most recently entered instruction, translates it into machine language, and executes it
Sometimes uses to refer to a small program that have been traditionally used for automation
A formula or procedure for solving a problem. Can also be described as a set of steps that are followed in order to complete a process
Separation of different aspect of a system
Often used to indicate that the number of tiers a system will be broken down into will vary between different software development projects
Tier where the user interface for the system is developed; shields the user from the underlying logic of the systems as well as the underlying data structures
Tier that sits between the user interface and the data.
Tier where data is stored, retrieved and updated from database tables
Is a development technique used in the implementation of user interfaces
Can take on different forms depending on the complexity of the application; in certain instances, it is an actual object that is an actual implementation of the application
The part of the application that represents the user interface; used to capture input from the user to be passed on via the controller to the model
The part of an application that interacts with the user and passes the user requests to the model
Ensuring that users enter the correct data type
Alphanumeric or text character
Number with a decimal point
Flat File Database
One large single table; used if the amount of data that is being recorded is fairly minimal
Has multiple tables (relations) with interrelated fields; most common structure for databases
Organizes data using a tree like or organizational chart type structure
Database Management System (DBMS)
Used to create, manipulate, and access the data in a database
Often presented as a table
Rows of a relation
Columns of the relation
Contains the data of an attribute for a record within a relation
A search of data in the relation or relations that fit specific parameters
A query that returns all of the records from the relation, but only select attributes or fields
Sorting records based on some field(s) such as ascending order by last name
Withdraws information from multiple relations
A field int he relations that contains a unique value
A specific information system to help an organization reach its strategic goals
A collection of organized databases
Database Information Processing (OLAP)
Data is processed through a suite of analysis software tools
Creates a subset of the data by reducing the data from multiple dimensions to one dimension
Same as slicing except that the result can be in multiple dimensions
Drilling up and down
Shifts the view of the data; down provides more detail, up provides summarized data
Similar to drilling up but it collapses the data from multiple items into a single value
Rotates data to view the data from a different perspective
Online Data Processing (OLDP)
Deals with data in real time
Uses business event to trigger messages to be sent by middleware between software modules that are completely independent of one another
Processing large amounts of data all in one batch when the computer system is not busy
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)
Interacts with a database via a database driver
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A standard query language that is used to communicate in may DBMSs
Database Interacting Format
SELECT fields FROM tables WHERE fields from tables match criteria
Used to inform the DBMS what fields or attributes are of interest
Used to inform the DBMS what tables are to be interrogated by the query and if more than one table, how they are to be combined or joined
Used to inform the DBMS of the specific criteria the data should match to be returned as the output of the query
Initiation, planning, executing and controlling, and closing
Problem definition, resource allocation, risk assessment
Organize activities, time estimation, cost estimation
Project Executing and Controlling Reports
Variance reports, Status reports, Resource Allocation reports
Adding to the scope of the project; can impact the allocation of resources.
Requirements that are not actually needed but are "nice to have"
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
A process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying information systems, including hardware and software
Common Steps in SDLC
Preliminary investigation, Analysis, Logical design, Physical design, Implementation, Maintenance
Assesses the feasibility of the proposed project and selects a development methodology
Determines the user requirements for the new system and develops logical models of the system
Logical models are revised to ensure that the new system will meet the user requirements identified in the first step
Logical models are converted into physical models
Begin converting the models from the previous steps into the actual system; this step also includes installing hardware, testing the system, and training the end users
Modifications or corrections to the system are made
System developers assist end users as they interact with new system; simulated data is used
Performed by the end user without any assistance from the system developers; live data in a real working environment is used.
User Acceptance Testing
Employed to assess whether the system does what the user expects and to ensure that it functions in a way that is useful to the user
1. System Conversion
2. Final Documentation
3. End User Training
Old system is turned off and the new system is turned on at a specific data and time
There is a period of time in which both systems are operating concurrently
Involves starting the conversation with a portion of end users
Deploys a subset of the system first, rather than deploying the whole system at once
The activity performed by an organization to ensure that critical business functions will be available to customer, suppliers, regulators, and other entities that must have access to those functions.
Create a copy of everything that is on a hard drive
Everything on the hard drive is copied each and every time a backup is performed
An initial full backup is completed and then subsequent backups only capture the changes since the last backup
The OS writes data (and changes to data) to multiple hard drives at the same time.
A secure location for storing backup media
Physical location where an organization can move its operations that includes everything for normal business operations; quickest return to business but very expensive.
Physical location like a shell that can be used for operations should the need arise; not equipped with hardware, servers, etc.; cheaper to have
Having multiple data centers located in disparate regions; typically used by large organizations.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Refers to the myriad types of devices that can and will be connected to the Internet in the next few years.
Refers to data sets that are so large and complex that they will require more advanced database management/processing tools.
Software as a Service. Can access and use software through the Internet.
Platform as a Service. Intention is to be able to quickly and reliably develop and deliver applications.
Infrastructure as a Service. All resources an IT dept. needs are located outside of the organization and are accessible by anyone, anywhere.
A code of moral conduct or a set of principles that govern behavior.
Privacy, Ownership, Control, Accuracy, Security
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