"I can safely say that the commencement of what I may call the Railway Period, not only were the wages in most parts of the country established by tradition and authority, rather than by the natural laws of supply and demand, but the opportunity to work was in general restricted to particular spots. For the first time in history the Indian finds that he has in his power of labor a valuable possession which, if he uses it right, will give him something much better than mere subsistence. Follow him to his own home, in some remote village, and you will find that the railway laborer has carried to his own village not only new modes of working, new wants, and a new feeling of self-respect and independence, but new ideas of what government and laws can offer him. As he is, I believe, a better and more loyal subject, as he is certainly a more useful laborer."
Bartle Frere, British governor of the Bombay Presidency, India
speech on opening of a rail line, 1863
Which of the following best explains Frere's characterization of the time of his speech as the "Railway Period" in British India
"... But after a long period of commercial intercourse [trade], there appear among the crowd of
barbarians both good persons and bad, unevenly. Consequently there are those who smuggle opium to
seduce the Chinese people and so cause the spread of the poison to all provinces. Such persons who only
care to profit themselves, and disregard their harm to others, are not tolerated by the laws of heaven and
are unanimously hated by human beings. His Majesty the Emperor, upon hearing of this, is in a towering
rage. He has especially sent me, his commissioner, to come to Kwangtung [Guangdong Province], and
together with the governor-general and governor jointly to investigate and settle this matter.... "
"Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria" from Lin Zexu
Chinese Commissioner of Canton, 1839
This letter to Queen Victoria relates most directly to the outbreak of the
The original caption to this engraving produced circa 1791 explains the image as follows: "Reason, characterized by a woman with the sacred fire of the love of the fatherland on her head, places the white man and the man of color at the same level... He [the man of color] is leaning on the Rights of Man and holds in his other hand the Decree of May 15 concerning the free people of color. Reason is being pushed by Nature, who is wearing a crown of fruit...Injustice [and] the demon of Discord or of Insurrection, ready to cross the ocean... is in the background."
Anonymous, Mortals Are Equals, as published in Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus, Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804, A Brief History with Documents (2006): p. 23, Boston, MA: Bedford-St. Martin's
In the above engraving, the artist's purpose was most likely to promote which of the following