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Developmental Psychology: Chapter 9 - Emerging Adulthood
Terms in this set (40)
an economy based on information, technology, and services, with most new jobs requiring people to have education or training beyond secondary school
ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs; also called maximum oxygen uptake
quantity of blood flow from the heart
preference for going to bed early and waking up early
preference for going to bed late and waking up late
restraints on behavior imposed by social obligations and relationships
graduated driver licensing (GDL)
government program in which young people obtain driving privileges gradually, contingent on a safe driving record, rather than all at once
consuming five or more drinks in a row for men, four in a row for women
socialising with friends without any specific goal or activity; includes behaviour such as riding around in a car for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends
overcoming adverse environmental circumstances and achieving healthy development despite those circumstances
characteristics of young people that are related to lower likelihood of problems despite experiencing high-risk circumstances
name the four revolutions that contributed to the rise of emerging adulthood, & the five developmental features distinctive to emerging adulthood
the rise of emerging adulthood was due to four revolutions that began in the 1960s & 70s: the Technological Revolution, the Sexual Revolution, the Women's Movement, & the Youth Movement. the five features of emerging adulthood include identity explorations, instability, self-focus, feeling in-between, & possibilities/optimism.
describe some of the ways emerging adulthood varies among cultures, with specific reference to European & Asian countries
emerging adulthood is longest in Europe, where education often lasts well into the 20s & the median age of entering marriage & parenthood is around 30. in Asian countries, emerging adults balance their identity explorations with a sense of obligation to family. they seek to become capable of supporting their parents, which is seen as a key marker of becoming an adult. emerging adulthood is rare but growing in developing countries, especially in urban areas.
Name the indicators that emerging adulthood is a period of peak physical functioning.
emerging adulthood is a time of peak physical functioning as indicated in measures such as VO2 max & grip strength. however, many emerging adults feel less than optimally healthy & energetic due to lifestyle factors such as sleep problems & the strain of balancing school & work obligations.
summarise college students' sleep patterns & the main elements of sleep hygiene
college students' sleep patterns are often irregular & disrupted, so that they accumulate a large sleep debt during the week & then try to compensate on weekends. part of the problem is that they tend toward eveningness in their 20s, whereas the older adults who set emerging adults' work & class schedules tend toward morningness. good sleep hygiene includes waking up at the same time each day, getting regular exercise, & limiting caffeine & alcohol comsumption.
explain why young drivers have the highest rate of crashes, & name the most effective approach to reducing those rates
rates of automobile fatalities are high in adolescence & emerging adulthood due to a combination of inexperience & risky driving behaviours such as driving too fast or while intoxicated. factors that influence emerging adults' risky driving include being male, sensation seeking & aggressiveness, & the belief that peers approve of risky driving. fatalities among novice drivers have been reduced substantially by GDL programs.
explain why rates of substance use peak in the early 20s & then decline
substance use rates peak in the early 20s primarily because this is when social control is lowest & unstructured socialising is highest. the decline in substance use in the late 20s & beyond is primarily due to taking on new social roles such as spouse & parent, which provide new sources of social control.
identify the protective factors associated with resilience & explain why emerging adulthood may be a critical period for resilience
many children, adolescents, and emerging adults exhibit resilience despite growing up in high-risk conditions. some of the key protective factors that promote resilience are high intelligence, one caring adult, a healthy school environment, & high religiosity. emerging adulthood may be an especially important period for the expression of resilience because it is a time when people are most likely to have the scope of individual choice that may enable them to make decisions that change their lives for the better. in a classic longitudinal study, many participants showed resilience for the first time in emerging adulthood, due to experiences such as obtaining higher education, joining the military, or gaining religious faith.
education or training beyond secondary school
an educational approach in which all or most of the course content is delivered electronically
an educational approach in which students learn partly online and partly through face-to-face learning in the classroom
work status of adults who are not in school, are not working, and are looking for a job
compare the tertiary education systems & college experiences in developed countries, & name the various long-term benefits of tertiary education
participation in tertiary education has risen dramatically in recent decades. a majority of emerging adults not obtain tertiary education in most developed countries, with women consistently attaining higher educational achievement than men. countries vary greatly in their tertiary education systems, with Europe the most structured & Japan the least. tertiary education has been shown to have many benefits, including greater earnings & higher career achievements.
analyse the potential advantages & disadvantages of online learning in delivering tertiary education
online learning offers the promise of providing courses to many people who could otherwise not afford them or live in places where they would otherwise have no access to tertiary education. however, according to research only 10% of people who sign up for online courses complete them, & it would be problematic to assess performance without the opportunity for cheating. more likely than a complete transition to online tertiary education is blended learning that combines the opportunities provided by online learning with the strengths of the traditional classroom & college experience.
describe the transition from school to full-time work, & explain why unemployment rates among emerging adults are higher than for older adults
emerging adults tend to seek identity-based work that fits their abilities & interests. in developed countries the best jobs require tertiary education, & emerging adults often struggle in the job market because they lack basic skills as well as educational credentials. in the United States, unemployment is especially high among African Americans, because they are more likely to lack educational credentials.
identity versus identity confusion
in Erikson's theory, the crisis of adolescence, with two alternative paths: establishing a clear and definite identity, or experiencing identity confusion, which is a failure to form a stable and secure identity
identity status model
model for researching Erikson's theory of identity development, classifying identity development into four categories: diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, or achievement
identity with two distinct facets, for example one for the local culture and one for the global culture, or one within one's ethnic group and one for others
belief that others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group
unmarried romantic partners living together
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
infection transmitted through sexual contact
describe the course of self-esteem from adolescence through emerging adulthood & explain the reasons for this pattern
self-esteem often rises for emerging adults because they have moved beyond some of the difficult issues of adolescence, such as concerns about physical appearance. another reason is that they have more control over how & with whom they spend their time.
describe the various forms identity development can take in emerging adulthood, & consider patterns of cultural & ethnic identity
in the identity status model, James Marcia proposed four categories of identity development: diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, & achievement. research indicates that for most people identity achievement is not reached until emerging adulthood or beyond. cultures influence identity development by the extent to which they allow or restrict their young people's opportunities to make choices in love & work. today. globalization often influences the cultural context of identity development, resulting in bicultural identities. for members of ethnic minorities, there are a variety of possible forms their ethnic identity may take, including assimilation, marginality, separation, & biculturalism.
summarise the changes in American gender beliefs in recent decades & include findings from research on gender stereotypes among college students
beliefs about gender roles have become less restrictive in American society over the last half century, although a substantial proportion of adults still believe women should be mainly at home & men should be the ones who are active in the world. however, gender stereotypes persist in occupational roles, in the expectations for men & women to perform different kinds of jobs, & in less favourable evaluations of women's work performance.
summarise the religious beliefs and practices of American emerging adults, & contrast them with young Europeans
religious beliefs & practices decline in emerging adulthood, reaching their lowest point in the life span. emerging adults tend to hold highly individualised religious beliefs rather than adhering to a traditional doctrine. European emerging adults tend to be less religious than Americans, but even in the least religious countries a majority of emerging adults believe in some kind of afterlife.
explain why emerging adults have often been at the forefront of political movements, & contrast this with their involvement in conventional politics
political participation is low in emerging adulthood with respect to conventional measures such as voting. however, emerging adults are more likely than older adults to engage in volunteer work & to join revolutionary & extreme political movements, due to their ideological identity search & their lack of limiting social commitments.
describe patterns of home-leaving in the United States & Europe & how this transition influences relations with parents
emerging adults in the United States & northern Europe usually move out of their parents' household at age 19 or 20 to live on their own or with a friend or romantic partner. in southern Europe, emerging adults usually remain at home for longer & enjoy doing so. relations with parents often improve when emerging adults move out of the household, but relations also improve because emerging adults become better as taking their parents' perspectives.
describe the role of intimacy in emerging adults' friendships & the most common activities of emerging adult friends
Friends are important to emerging adults, especially to those without a current romantic partner, and intimacy is more important to their friendships than it is in childhood or adolescence. Common activities among friends include unstructured socializing, which may involve alcohol use and media use. Activities with friends decline steadily during the 20s as emerging adults form stable romantic partnerships.
explain how romantic relationships & sexual behaviour change during emerging adulthood
In seeking romantic partners, today's emerging adults value most the interpersonal qualities that help build a relationship, such as being kind and trustworthy. Cohabitation is now normative in most Western countries. In northern Europe cohabitation relationships are as enduring as marriages, but in the United States they typically dissolve within five years. Worldwide, emerging adults' premarital sexual behavior varies greatly across countries and cultures. STIs are more common in emerging adulthood than in any other age group, including chlamydia, HPV, herpes simplex 2, and HIV/AIDS.
explain how emerging adults use social media & texting to maintain social contacts
Most emerging adults in developed countries use social media such as Facebook on a daily basis, and they often use these media as an arena for identity play. Most of them report that social media help them maintain regular contact with friends and family and allow them to draw on their support when necessary. Texting serves a similar function and is used more by emerging adults than by older age groups.
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