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Practice Test #3
Terms in this set (52)
Cells supporting neuron cell bodies in ganglia are termed ________, while _________help to regulate the CNS neuronal external environment.
satellite cells, astrocytes
in the CNS, doesn't contain myelin
Which structural definition of a neuron is NOT CORRECT?
bipolar---> have two process on one side of cell body
Retrograde transport ________, while anterograde transport _________.
moves materials from axon toward the cell body; moves materials away from the cell body to axon
What structure, found surrounding PNS axons, is NOT found surrounding CNS axons?
Ion channels that open in response to depolarization are called ________.
Endocannabinoids are retrograde neurotransmitters, meaning they are ________.
released from postsynaptic neurons and diffuse to the presynaptic neuron
A recently depolarized area of a cell membrane cannot generate an action potential because of the ______________.
absolute refractory period
What is present at the axon hillock that allows the production of action potentials?
Muscarinic ACh receptors act through ________ activation of K+ channels.
Cholinergic fibers use ________ as the neurotransmitter.
Conduction of an action potential in an unmyelinated axon is called ________.
conducted without decrement (without decreasing in amplitude)
What is needed to return a membrane to its resting membrane potential, with all ions in the correct locations?
Na+/K+ pump action
Repolarization of an axon during an action potential is produced by
outward diffusion of K+
Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called ________.
Neurotransmitter action could be prevented, or disrupted, if a drug or other agent ________.
blocked voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic membrane
The capacity of synapses for alteration at the molecular level is termed ________.
chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells
block the degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters (such as dopamine and epinephrine)
block the re-uptake of serotonin back up into the presynaptic neuron
breaks down acetylcholine (ACh)
The convergence of many presynaptic terminals onto one postsynaptic neuron is called ________.
involves one neuron forming synapses with several postsynaptic neurons
During an action potential
Na+ influx causes depolarization
The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ________ ions than ________ ions.
Hyperpolarization is caused by which of these neurotransmitters?
GABA in the brain
What type of proteins are present at chemical synapses to ensure the close proximity of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes?
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
A boy has poor comprehension and speech is fluent but meaningless. He most likely has damage to
The limbic system, especially the ________ and ________, are rich in "stress hormone" receptors.
hippocampus, amygdaloid body
Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is FALSE?
if damaged, can cause ataxia
Aphasias are most often associated with damage to ________ and ________ areas.
motor speech; Wernicke's
What is the first structure of a reflex arc?
Which of the following is NOT required to coordinate movement?
A "word salad" speaking pattern occurs when ________.
Wernicke's area is damaged
Cerebrospinal fluid is found ________.
Both within the central canal and within the ventricles.
is the thermostat of the body because it regulates temperature
A cranial nerve with only sensory fibers is the ________.
The presence of ______ waves in an EEG of an adult indicate brain damage.
Which of the following generalizations does NOT describe the cerebral cortex?
the hemispheres are exactly equal in function
Which is responsible for secreting melatonin that regulates circadian rhythms?
Which brain structure contains two respiratory control centers and is part of the brain stem?
Which of the following spinal nerve groups is incorrect?
Postganglionic ________ nerves release acetylcholine.
Autonomic motor nerves do NOT innervate ________.
A defect in nitric oxide synthetase gene may result in reduced ________ of cerebral arteries since nitric oxide production would be impaired.
Damage to the midbrain would probably have a greater effect on the ________ division of the autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following is a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
secretion of tears
Which of the following most accurately describes a difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve stimulation?
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons arise from the brain stem and sacrum.
The neurotransmitter released at terminal ganglia is ________.
Somatic motor reflexes involve ________.
contraction of skeletal muscle
Which of the following types of muscle tissue can contract in the absence of nerve stimulation?
both cardiac and smooth muscle are correct
Another name for the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is __________.
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