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Cognitive Psychology- Chapter Seven
Terms in this set (27)
A complex system of symbols and rules which allow us to communicate, think, record information, and express emotion.
According to many psychologists and psycholinguists, there are six properties shared by ALL languages:
4.) Multiple Levels
A universal property of language that allows us to share information with other individuals who share a common language is called the _______________ ____________ ____ ________________.
Communication Property of Language
________________ ______________ _____ ______________ is a universal property of language describing the arbitrary symbolic nature of symbols and characters and how they relate to real concepts in an individual's mind.
Symbolism Property of Language
A universal property of language that dictates how a language's individual symbols and characters should be combined to form sounds, and meaning is called the ______________ _______________ _____ ________________.
Structure Property of Language
_____________ __________ ________________ ______ ___________ is a universal property of language that describes the many analyzable layers of a language; for example, the letter, word, sentence, paragraph, and novel.
Multiple Levels Property of Language
A universal property of language describing the ability of language producers; to create a virtual limitless number of unique language expressions, primarily as a result of the complexity and structure of a language is called the ______________ _____________ ___ ___________.
Generativity Property of Language
____________ _____________ _____ ___________ is a universal property of language which describes the observation that all languages change over time, with the fading away of unused words, the creation of new words, and the attribution of new meanings to older words.
Dynamic Property of Language
Language production, in the past, has been broken into four successive stages:
Conceptualization Stage of Language Production
The first step of language production, which requires that the individual have an idea or concept in mind they wish to communicate, prior to beginning the communication production.
Formulation Stage of Language Production
The second step of language production, which requires the individual to develop a plan of how to communicate their idea or concept to other individuals.
Articulation Stage of Language Production
The third step of language production, which requires complex muscle movements, either in our ace, tongue, and mouth, or in our hands and pantomime gestures; it involves the actual production of communicating with others.
Self-Monitoring Stage of Language Production
The fourth, and final, step of language production, which involves the active monitoring of our language production in order to make certain what we are communicating in the articulation step is actually what we intend to communicate in the conceptualization step.
________ (1975) suggested that naturally occurring conversations or communication should follow four maxim principles.
Maxim of Quantity
Speakers should provide enough information to maintain the conversation but not too much information to make the situation uncomfortable.
Maxim of Quality
Speakers should attempt to make the conversation truthful.
Maxim of Manner
Speakers should make the conversation as simple and easy to understand as possible.
Maxim of Relation
Speakers should take about the topic that both speakers can understand at the given time of the conversation.
Fromkin's Model of Speech Production
1.) Identification of Meaning
2.) Selection of a Syntactic Structure
3.) Generation of Intonation Occur
4.) Insertion of Content Words
5.) Formation of Affixes and Function Words
6.) Specification of Phonetic Segments
3.) Consonant Reversals
5.) Morpheme Exchange Errors
Target: Canadian from Toronto
Target: Black boxes
Error: Black bloxes
Target: Left hemisphere
Error: Heft lemisphere
Target: Unanimity of opinion
Error: Unamity of opinion
Morpheme Exchange Error
Target: He has already packed two trunks
Error: He has already trunked two packs
A difficulty in language abilities resulting in diminished language production such as grammatical errors and non-fluent speech, although individuals with this disability are still able to communicate with considerable effort is called ________ __________.
__________ ___________ is a difficulty in language abilities resulting in an inability to comprehend spoken and written language. Although individuals with this disability can easily produce speech, their language production may be impaired because of difficulty in self-monitoring.
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