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NCTM

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Behaviorism-

observable behaviors, biological basis for learning, rewards and punishments

Cognitivism-

comes from behaviorism, inquiry-oriented, test hypothesis, doesn't allow for individuality

Social Learning Theory-

from cognitivism, learning comes from observation and sensorial experiences, imitate model, not individual, passive

Multiple Intelligences-

from constructivism and metacognition, information delivered in multiple ways, student-centered classroom, no evidence that it works

Brain based learning-

from constructivism and neuroscience, multi-sensory environment, community-based learning

Social Constructivism-

from cognitivism, reflection, connecting new information to past events, knowledge is not given or absolute

What are the six learning theories?

Behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning theory, social constructivism, multiple intelligences, brain based learning

Betsy Minor-Reid'

Curriculum Modification Ladder

When one student is not a full participant in his or her school community, then we are all at risk.

Shevin Inclusion, a matter of social justice.

Weiner, H. (2003). Effective inclusion: professional development in the context of the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children

Perhaps the most important of all teacher beliefs... is the notion that all children can learn.

Shevin, M. (2003) Inclusion, a matter of social justice. Educational Leadership

When one student is not a full participant in his or her school community, then we are all at risk

Curriculum Modification Ladder

Betsy Minor-Reid

"Perhaps the most important of all teacher beliefs . . . is the notion that all children can learn."

Weiner Effective inclusion: professional development in the context of the classroom

Numbers and Operations -

numbers, operations, and compute fluently

Algebra-

understand patterns, represent math problems, mathematical models to represent quadratic equations, understand change in various contexts

Geometry-

understand characteristics of two and three dimensional shapes and their geometrical relationships, specify locations and spatial relations with coordinate geometry, apply transformations and symmetry, use visualization and spatial reasoning to solve problems

Measurement-

understand measurement of objects and their units of measurement, know the right tools to make measurements

Data analysis and probability -

formulate questions and collect data to answer them, use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data, make predictions based on data, understand basic concepts of probability