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history final

history final
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belief in one god
what are the common beliefs that are held by muslims, jews, and christians?
the choice of a caliph
the split between sunni and shiite muslims began w/ disagreement over...
merchant
before muhammad became the prophet of islam, he was a
give alms
according to the 5 pillars of islam, every muslim must...
based on their gov. on muslim traditions
what do both the ottoman and safavid empires have in common?
persian styles
ottoman and safavid artists were influenced by...styles
humanistic concerns
the artists of the renaissance focused on
increased literacy
the development of printing in europe led to
earth travels around the sun (heliocentric)
copernicus proposed that
a wealthy merchant class
what contributed to the birth of the renaissance in italy?
the black death delayed economic growth
what best explains why the renaissance occurred in northern europe later than it did in italy?
spread of ideas
what was an effect of the printing revolution in the 1500s?
took over english church
how did henry Vll react when the pope refused to annul his marriage?
selling indulgences luther criticized the roman catholic church for...
luther criticized the roman catholic church for...
wanted to find new trade routes
what was the most important reason why european rulers encouraged ocean exploration?
portugal led the way in exploration
how did prince harry change the course of portugal's history?
brazil
name some places which wee influenced by portuguese culture...
corn
what would represent a native american influence on european colonists?
enslaved africans
by the 1500s, the most important element of african trade w/ europeans was
c. columbus
who began a vast global exchange that included people, plants, technologies, and cultures?
native american population
what resulted from encounters between the spanish and native americans?
worked as slaves on plantations
european traders sent africans to the americans to
huguenots
late 1500s, france was torn apart by religious
germany
what country was divided into many small states as a a result of thirty years' war
to gain control of german states
prussia and austria battled in the 1700s because
gaining a warm water port on the black sea
peter the great fought the ottoman turks because
protect the liberties of people
montesquieu believed the purpose of the separations of powers was to
great britain
who controlled the trade within the british colonies?
john locke
who's ideas were reflected in the declaration?
calling for a just society based on reason
thinkers during the age of reason challenged the est. social order by
thinkers during the age of reason challenged the est. social order by
joseph ll adopted englightenment ideas in order to
land owning aristocrats
Tory party in britain was made up of
taxation w/o representation
US resentment of british rule increased after 1763 over
john locke Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of the philosopher
Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of the philosopher
the third estate
the bourgeoisie belonged to which group?
create a lasting peace
what was the chief goal of the congress of vienna?
encircle france w/ strong countries why did congress of vienna redraw the boundaries of some euro countries?
why did congress of vienna redraw the boundaries of some euro countries?
there was inequality among the 3 estates
what do we know is true about france's social structure in the late 1800's?
the third estate
France's economy was mainly supported by...during the late 1800's and early 1900's
by becoming more radical
how did the french respond to threats to the revolution?
guaranteed the equality of all citizens by the law
how did the napoleonic code reflect enlightment principles?
improved farm machinery
what helped the british farmers increase food production in the 1700s?
steam engine
what became an important source of power for the industrial revolution?
provided fuel to produce iron
why was coal important to the industrial revolution?
worked +12 hrs a day outside the home early in the industrial revolution, working-class women
early in the industrial revolution, working-class women
practicing enclosure
during the agricultural revolution in the 1700s, wealthy landowners increased food production by
british business class had large profits to invest
what reasons explain why britain took the lead 9n the industrial revolution?
working conditions were dangerous & inhumane
what is true regarding workers in mines/factories during early industrial revolution?
middle class
which group benefited most from the industrial revolution?
improved sanitation
what was a direct result of the discovery that germs caused disease?
in tenements near the factories
in the 19th century cities, the poor lived
unions
what group is most closely linked to labor reform?
middle class
which social group grew the fastest during the 1800s?
sewage system
which new features of city life in the late 1800s has the greatest impact on the poor?
middle class
"a woman's place is in the home" reflected the values of which groups in 1850?
unification of germany
bismark was responsible for the
substantial iron and coal reserves
what contributed to germany's growth as an industrial power under bismark?
industrial workers
social reforms passed in britain in the late 1800s had the greatest impact on the poor?
austria-hungary
on the eve of ww1, bosnia was ruled by
automatic machine gun
weapons that contributed most to the stalemate on the western front during ww1 was
modern weapons
ww1 was more destructive than earlier wars because
involvement of usa
what helped allies acgueve the breakthrough they sought in ww1?
treaty of brest-livosk
what event ended russia's involvement in ww1?
in ruins
in 1918, europe was
more gov. involvement in people's lives
one effect of the great depression in the US was
feelings of hopelessness and loss
after ww1, the works of many important writers expressed
labor-saving devices
what had the greatest impact on the women's lives after ww1?
promised a better life
many italiams supported the fascist party because it
loyalty
what personality trait was most valued in fascist italy?
persecution and elemination of jews
some of hitler's goals were
soviet union
nation that suffered the highest number of casualties in ww1 was
massacre of more than 6 million jews
the term holocaust refers to the
allowed the US to take the offensive in the Pacific
battle of midway was a turning point that
france yearned revenged against germany to gan leading powers
how did aggressive nationalism push france and germany to the brink of war in the early 1900s?
serbians viewed austrians as foreign oppressors
what ethnic tensions in bosnia led to the assassination of archduke francis ferdinand and launched ww1?
germans used subs to attack ships carrying american citizens
which of the following was a major reason the US exchanged neutrality for war in 1917?
because there was no way to enforce bans on war
steps taken by the major powers to promote peace following ww1 have limited effects
spanish civil war
event that became dress rehearsal for ww2 by showing the destructive power of modern warfare
soviet union
operation barbarossa is hitler's plan to conquer
brought US into war
japanese attack on pearl harbor, hawaii brought
allied invasion of france
d-day is
midway island
battle that was a turning point after US took offensive in pacific
surrender of germany
the war ended in europe with the