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Exam 2 Quiz Questions
Terms in this set (60)
d ("Is soccer for boys or for girls?")
Which quote is most reflective of the use of a gender schema?
a) "I am a boy."
b) "Will you help me build this bridge?"
c) "You are a boy."
d) "Is soccer for boys or for girls?"
c (Infants often prefer to play with fathers and physical play is the norm.)
Which of the following statements is true in regard to relationships between fathers and their infants?
a) Infants tend to rely on fathers when they are distressed.
b) Fathers in developed nations spend more time in caregiving tasks than mothers do.
c) Infants often prefer to play with fathers and physical play is the norm.
d) Attachment typically first develops between infants and their fathers because fathers are usually the primary caregivers of American infants.
b (initiative versus guilt)
William has noticed that his daughter Bonnie has recently begun to ask a lot of questions like "What can I be when I grow up?" and "How come the sky is blue?" This behavior is best associated with the ______ stage of development.
a) trust versus mistrust
b) initiative versus guilt
c) autonomy versus shame and doubt
d) intimacy versus isolation
Elsie has been playing alone, upset, by herself in her room. When her mother returns, she is not comforted but seems angry with her mother. Elsie is most likely exhibiting a(n) ______ attachment.
After reading a book on Eriksonian theory, Farah would most likely describe her trusting 6-month-old daughter as possessing:
d (Katrina, who is proud of her new cat)
Who is most likely exhibiting a complex emotion?
a) Aisha, who is angry at her mother
b) Dmitri, who is afraid of the neighbor's pet dog
c) Felix, who expresses joy when being held by his mother
d) Katrina, who is proud of her new cat
c (social referencing)
One-year-old Matthew is afraid of the dog because he saw his father react with fear to the same dog. Which term best explains why Matthew is afraid?
a) stranger wariness
b) complex emotions
c) social referencing
d) avoidant attachment
b (simple social play)
Bud and Lou are both playing with blocks. Though they are playing, they smile at each other and trade blocks from time to time. It is most likely that Bud and Lou are involved in:
a) cooperative play
b) simple social play
c) parallel play
d) prosocial behavior
Which of the following was NOT an influence on children's prosocial behavior that was discussed in this chapter?
d (gender stability)
When three-year-old Juan, who is male, says "I'm going to grow up to be a mommy," he is failing to demonstrate:
a) gender identity
b) gender labeling
c) gender stereotypes
d) gender stability
c (No, as long as Elita provides "good mothering" when she's with the child at home.)
Elita is feeling guilty about sending her 18-month-old off to daycare. Assuming Elita is sending her daughter to a quality daycare center, should she be worried?
a) Yes, but only because her child is female.
b) No, because daycare makes children more cooperative.
c) No, as long as Elita provides "good mothering" when she's with the child at home.
d) Yes. Children younger than two who are in daycare experience far more negative effects than positive effects.
a (2 months of age)
Social smiles first appear at around:
a) 2 months of age
c) 12 months of age
d) 6 months of age
a (Fathers encourage gender-related play more than mothers)
Which of the following statements concerning parents' treatment of their children is true?
a) Fathers encourage gender-related play more than mothers
b) Fathers are more likely to respond based on their knowledge of the needs of the individual child
c) Mothers and fathers punish sons and daughters equally
d) Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat sons and daughters differently
d (true attachment)
Hughie has singled out his mother as someone different from all others. When his mother takes him to a new place, Hughie is able to explore but looks back to his mother every once in a while for reassurance. According to Bowlby, Hughie is most likely in the _____ phase of attachment.
b) attachment in the making
c) reciprocal relationships
d) true attachment
d ("If I do bad on this test, they may think that all black kids are stupid, and this thought is making me nervous and negatively impacting my performance.")
Morris, a 17-year-old African American is taking an intelligence test during his senior year of high school. Which of his current thoughts would indicate that he is experiencing stereotype threat?
a) "If I don't do well on this test, my mom and dad will be very disappointed with me."
b) "As an athlete, a good score on this will open up a lot of scholarship opportunities, and so I must do well even though I am not that smart."
c) "I wonder if my Asian friends do better than everyone else."
d) "If I do bad on this test, they may think that all black kids are stupid, and this thought is making me nervous and negatively impacting my performance."
Bucky is having a hard time remembering that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin. He also knows that his father will be upset if Bucky flunks his test of state captials. Suddenly Bucky sees a connection between these two events and realizes that he can recall the capital of Wisconsin by remembering that his dad will be mad at his son if he can't remember (mad at son =Madison). In this example, Bucky is clearly using _____ to aid his memory.
a (At age 11, females tend to be slightly taller than males.)
Which statement concerning sex differences in height at age 11 is most accurate?
a) At age 11, females tend to be slightly taller than males.
b) At age 11, males tend to be significantly taller than females.
c) At age 11, males tend to be slightly taller than females.
d) At age 11, females and males are exactly the same size.
Which of Gardner's types of intelligences is least likely to be found on a typical psychometric theory-based test of intelligence?
According to the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, the most effective single treatment for hyperactivity is through the use of:
a) psychosocial treatment
c) home-based interventions
d) behavior modification (i.e., rewards and punishment)
c (The formal thinkers would be more systematic when combining the liquids and eliminating combinations)
A formal operational thinker and a concrete operational thinker are both presented with 3 beakers containing red liquid and are told that some combination of the liquids will produce a green liquid. How would the manner in which the formal thinker solves the problem most likely differ from that of the concrete thinker?
a) The formal thinkers would apply both animism and centration when solving the task
b) The formal thinkers' approach would be significantly more haphazard
c) The formal thinkers would be more systematic when combining the liquids and eliminating combinations
d) The formal thinker would do the problem entirely in their head and not actually pour any liquid
Waldo loves to play hide and go seek. While he is capable of generating a good list of places to hide and he often comes up with novel hiding spots, the truth is that none of his spots are ever that good, and he is always found almost immediately. This indicates that on this task Waldo would rate poorly in ______ ability.
b (has fewer emotional problems)
As a "gifted" child, Alicia most likely _____ than her peers.
a) is physically larger
b) has fewer emotional problems
c) is less mature
d) is more socially inept
c (deductive reasoning)
The statements, "People who study for their psychology tests get good grades" and "Sigmund studied for his psychology test," along with the conclusion "Sigmund will get a good grade on his psychology test" represents an example of a ____ test.
b) divergent thinking
c) deductive reasoning
d) object permanence
a (teenagers and their biological parents)
Researchers have correlated the IQ scores of adopted children with that of their biological parents and their adoptive parents. This research indicates that the highest correlation is found between:
a) teenagers and their biological parents
b) teenagers and their adoptive parents
c) infants and their biological parents
d) infants and their adoptive parents
a (The most common type of learning disability is developmental dyslexia.)
Which of the following statements is TRUE in regard to children with learning disability?
a) The most common type of learning disability is developmental dyslexia.
b) Children with learning disabilities may also suffer from a sensory impairment that could explain their poor performance.
c) Approximately 10 percent of school-age children in the United States are classified as learning disabled.
d) Children with learning disabilities have below-average intelligence.
A 7 year old child with a mental age of 14 would have an IQ of:
d (Japanese and Taiwanese students spend significantly more time in school and have more homework than do children in the United States.)
Which statement concerning math and culture is true?
a) American parents tend to set higher academic achievement standards than Asian parents.
b) Japanese and Taiwanese parents more likely tend to believe that heredity (not hard work) leads to mathematic success.
c) American children score near the top on international tests assessing math.
d) Japanese and Taiwanese students spend significantly more time in school and have more homework than do children in the United States.
d (a 10-word list of unfamiliar foreign words will be harder to recall than a 20-word list of familiar words)
The best example of metamemory would involve knowing that:
a) 10 + 20 = 30
b) foreign words come from another country
c) whales are mammals, not fish
d) a 10-word list of unfamiliar foreign words will be harder to recall than a 20-word list of familiar words
d (How many different ways can you think of to use a paper clip?)
Which question requires divergent thinking?
a) What is 3,928 + 2,432?
b) Who was the thirty-fifth president of the United States?
c) What is the chemical composition of water?
d) How many different ways can you think of to use a paper clip?
c (mother and son)
Which pairing is most likely to fall victim to the "negative reinforcement trap"?
a) father and daughter
b) mother and daughter
c) mother and son
d) father and son
Typically by the time they are ____ years old, children show an awareness of broadly held stereotypes regarding race.
When Kyle asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best describes Kyle's parents?
b (a strong sense of ethnic identity)
Research on sibling relationships in African-American families indicates that these relationships are most positive when children have:
b) a strong sense of ethnic identity
c) high IQs
d) many siblings
Julie watches her sister swing her pet cat by the tail and watches as her sister gets punished for that behavior by her parents. Consequently, Julie learns not to swing her pet cat by the tail. Which term best describes this scenario?
a) indulgent parenting
a (European American)
Matthew's parents are very warm and exert a moderate amount of control over his life. Matthew's parents are most likely:
a) European American
c) Latin American
d) immigrant Chinese
Albert was physically abused as a child. Statistics show that approximately ____ of abused children become abusing parents.
At which stage of perspective taking are children most egocentric?
Which aspect of friendship tends to be new to children aged 8-11?
a) sharing feelings
b) mutual liking
d) sharing activities
d (Orlaith watched more Sesame Street than Mary.)
Mary and Orlaith are high school students. Orlaith gets mostly "A" grades, and Mary gets mostly "B"s. Which of these aspects of their pasts is most likely?
a) Mary watched more Mr. Roger's Neighborhood than Orlaith.
b) Orlaith watched more action-oriented programs than Mary.
c) Mary watched more television than Orlaith.
d) Orlaith watched more Sesame Street than Mary.
d (the intensity of the feelings of others toward them)
Controversial and average children differ in terms of:
a) how many people like them
b) how many people dislike them
d) the intensity of the feelings of others toward them
c (personality traits)
The use of ______ in descriptions of people tend to increase as we age.
c) personality traits
d) general information
c (is about the same for girls and boys)
The effect of divorce on children:
a) is less negative when children live with their opposite-sex parent
b) is greater for preschool children than for school-age children and adolescents
c) is about the same for girls and boys
d) became less harmful during the 1990s than it had been prior to that time
c (uninvolved or authoritarian)
Children who are aggressive tend to come from families with _________ parenting styles.
a) authoritative or permissive
b) authoritarian or authoritative
c) uninvolved or authoritarian
d) permissive or uninvolved
b (hostile aggression)
Mabel likes to hit other children for no other purpose than to see them get hurt and feel scared. What term best describes Mabel's behavior?
b) hostile aggression
c) instrumental aggression
d) relational aggression
a (Engaging in minor criminal acts over a short period of time)
What is the defining characteristic of adolescent-limited antisocial behavior?
a) Engaging in minor criminal acts over a short period of time
b) Always engaging in some sex act
c) Engaging in minor criminal acts over a long period of time
d) Always engaging in violent acts
a (peer comparisons)
The drop in self-esteem often found when children first enter middle school appears to be due to:
a) peer comparisons
b) the illusion of invulnerability
c) the acquisition of concrete operational thinking
d) changes in ethnic identity
After carefully examining which careers might be best for him, Stan has just taken a job with a construction company. Though he likes the money, he was not ready for the kinds of responsibilities often asked of regular employees. Stan is probably in Super's _____ stage of career development.
Approximately 65 percent of adolescents from _______ agreed with the statement that "most of the time I am happy."
a) the USA
c ("I wonder what kinds of events take place at a festival celebrating Scottish heritage?")
Which statement/question best exemplifies the second phase of ethnic identity achievement?
a) "Do I have to listen to the tape on Scottish legends?"
b) "I don't want to be considered a Scottish American; I just want to be an American."
c) "I wonder what kinds of events take place at a festival celebrating Scottish heritage?"
d) "I feel a strong sense of Scottish heritage."
a (Yes, but only if it's a summer job.)
Sixteen-year-old Wendy's parents are happy when she tells them she's decided to take on a part-time job working 20-30 hours a week at a fast-food restaurant. Based on the research presented in your textbook, should these parents be happy?
a) Yes, but only if it's a summer job.
b) Yes, but only if the job requires simple, repetitive tasks.
c) Yes, part-time jobs seem to reduce the risk of mental health problems.
d) No, part-time jobs are always a bad idea.
c (using hypothetical reasoning skills)
According to Erikson, a teenager is most likely to achieve his or her identity by:
a) becoming crystallized
b) using learned helplessness
c) using hypothetical reasoning skills
d) becoming more egocentric
a (Plumber Dagmar)
According to Holland, who is most poorly matched with their career type?
a) Plumber Dagmar, who has an enterprising personality
b) Guidance counselor Della, who has a social personality
c) Accountant Dana, who has a conventional personality
d) Nuclear scientist Dave, who has an investigative personality
a (personal fable)
Jerry is upset because his comedy partner, Dean, just broke up with him. When his parents attempt to console Jerry, he tells them, "It's no use, you couldn't possibly know how I feel. No one knows how I feel!" Jerry's statement is an example of:
a) a personal fable
b) an imaginary audience
c) learned helplessness
Chancres are associated with which STD?
d (Inherited temperament may increase risk for aggressive behavior.)
Which statement concerning antisocial/delinquent behavior and biology is true?
a) Chromosome 17 contains a gene that controls violence.
b) Diminished levels of hormones like testosterone often lead to violence
c) Twin studies indicate that aggression is inherited.
d) Inherited temperament may increase risk for aggressive behavior.
Brita is a junior interested in majoring in English literature, philosophy, biotechnology, or European history. While she likes all of these majors, she is not sure which one to focus on. According to Marcia, Brita would best be classified as being in the _____ level of identity status concerning a collegiate major.
b (Susan's peers would be more likely to express some disapproval concerning her behavior)
Nick and Susan are typical American teenagers. How would their descriptions concerning their first sexual experience most likely differ?
a) NIck would be more likely to feel guilty about his first sexual experience
b) Susan's peers would be more likely to express some disapproval concerning her behavior
c) Susan would be more likely to view the experience in terms of recreation rather than romance
d) Nick would be more likely to describe his first partner as someone that he loves
a (illusion of invulnerability)
Your text indicates that many teenagers who smoke are convinced that cigarette smoking is harmless for healthy adolescents. Which concept does the best job of explaining this phenomenon?
a) illusion of invulnerability
d) imaginary audience
a (Native Americans)
Which group of teenage boys has by far the highest suicide rate?
a) Native Americans
b) African Americans
c) European Americans
d) Latino Americans
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