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301 Exam 3
Terms in this set (103)
Physical activity tracks reasonably well from childhood into young adulthood. T/F?
For health-related fitness tests in Fitnessgram (e.g., 1 mi [1.6 km] walk or run test, skinfold test), criterion-referenced standards are thought to be more appropriate than normative standards such as percentile scores. T/F?
A child's short attention span can interfere with cycle ergometer protocols. T/F?
Because of differences in physiological development between children and adolescents, the 2008 U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines provide separate recommendations for each group. T/F?
List 3 major reasons for emphasizing an active lifestyle for children and youth. (Short Answer)
1) enhancing health and fitness
2) establishing am active lifestyle that can be continued throughout life
3) reducing risks for health problems throughout life
According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents, at least ____ minutes of physical activity is recommended per day.
According to the Physical Guidelines for Children and Adolescents at least ____ days per week should include muscle-strengthening exercises
According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents, at least ____ days per week should include bone-strengthening exercises.
Compared to adults, which of the following is NOT true regarding children and the acute effects of exercise?
Children have higher absolute energy production (kcal.min-1) than adults
Compared with adults, which of the following is true regarding children and their response to exercise?
Children have lower RPE at the same HR or %HRmax.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding children and the chronic effects of exercise?
Children have an increased ability to achieve strength gains
Which of the following does NOT have strongly supported evidence regarding the benefits of regular physical activity in children?
decreased symptoms of depression
The driving force for promoting fitness in the United States in the early 1950's was
American children's low scores on basic flexibility and power tests
President ________________ established the President's Council on Youth Fitness
List all the components of fitness that Fitnessgram evaluates and the recommended evaluation tool used to test it. (Short Answer)
1) Cardiorespiratory (PACER test)
2) Muscular strength and endurance (curl-up, trunk lift, push-up)
3) Flexibility (back-saver sit and reach)
4) Body composition (skin fold measurements)
Who developed Fittnessgram?
Give 3 examples of bone-strengthening activities (Short Answer)
4) weight bearing activity
Which of the following is true regarding the comparison between children and adults and their response to the acute effects of exercise?
Children have similar VO2 values (as measured in ml.kg-1.min-1) as adults.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding children and the acute effects of exercise?
Children are better able than adults to dissipate heat via evaporation
In terms of chronic effects of physical activity in youth, which of the following is NOT true?
Before reaching puberty , strength gains in children are primarily due to hypertrophy
Compared with the effects seen in adults, chronic exercise tends to produce fewer health and fitness benefits in children
**Both b and c are untrue
As in adults, exercise testing and training involve a very small risk of death. In children, this risk relates primarily to early-onset atherosclerosis. T/F?
In infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, the focus of physical activity should be on
interaction with caregivers and exploring the environment
development of motor and movement skills
**b and d
Which of the following is true regarding physical activity during adolescence?
Motivation for doing physical activity shifts toward reasons that are more psychosocial in nature
Children are considered to be inherently healthy and absent of major disease. Therefore, there is no list of contraindications used in the child population when CRF testing is performed. T/F?
Obesity continues to be a major public health problem, affecting about ______ of children and youth
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the use of graded exercise tests (GXT's) in the measurement of VO2 in children?
The Bruce or Balke treadmill protocols should not be used for children
Which of the following is NOT tested with the Fitnessgram protocol
Which common field test is used in the assessment of CRF fitness in children and youth? (Short Answer)
PACER, 1 mile run, or 1 mile walk test
Which of the following is true regarding the 2008 U.S. physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents aged 6 to 17?
It's recommended to get 60 min or more of physical activity per day
Explain the difference between criterion-based standards and normative standards (Short Answer)
Normative standards describe where children stand relative to the scores of their peers (ex. percentiles); criterion standards describe the level of fitness consistent with good health independent of what percentile that might be
Resistance training in children and youth places more emphasis on muscular endurance training rather than muscular strength training . T/F?
The driving force for promoting fitness in the United States in the early 1950's was
American children's low scores on basic flexibility and power tests
Between the years 2000 and 2040, the number of individuals over the age of 65 is expected to
increase by 100%
The older population consists of those who are older than
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the changes seen in muscular strength and endurance with aging?
Strength per unit of cross-sectional area declines with age
After an intense (>80% 1 RM) resistance training program, which of the following is NOT true regarding the results seen in older individuals?
Resistance training increases muscular strength only, not muscle mass
Which of the following is NOT true regarding changes in body composition that occur in older adults?
When older people decrease their body fat through exercise, most of the fat loss is from subcutaneous stores
From age 25 to age 75, the average male and female adds about 10 kg of fat. T/F?
As a result of endurance training, older women can increase both cardiac output and VO2 difference. T/F?
How would you compare the rate of decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass?
Generally speaking, BMD and muscle mass decline at similar rates
Name 3 factors that play a large role in maintaining BMD. (Short Answer)
calcium intake, vitamin D intake, weight bearing physical activity, hormone levels
In older individuals, the major contributing factor of decreased maximal cardiac output is a lower _______ ________ ______. (Fill in the Blank)
maximal heart rate
Endurance Training is likely to increase by ______ in previously sedentary older adults.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the decline in with aging?
in contrast to men, women show 20% decline per decade independent of activity status
Name one functional tebtfrom the Senior Fitness Test that assesses aerobic endurance. (Short Answer)
6min. walk test and 2 min. step test.
Name one functional test from the Senior Fitness Test that assesses upper- or lower-body flexibility. (Short Answer)
chair sit-and-reach or back scratch
Name one functional test from the Senior Fitness Test that assesses upper- or lower-body strength (Short Answer)
30-second chair stand and the arm curl test
List 2 modifications that might be needed during fitness testing for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to accommodate problems present in older adults. (Short Answer)
1) Use a cycle ergometer for people with arthritis or balance problems
2) the initial intensity of GXT should be lower and increments should increase at slower rates
List 4 factors that play a pivotal role in maintaining balance. (Short Answer)
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the 2008 U.S. physical activity guidelines for older adults?
Target heart rate (THR) zones should not be given because the intensity ranges are too strenuous for most older adults.
If an older adult cannot exercise at moderate levels for at least 30 min, exercise should be discontinued because the client is likely too unfit for exercise.
both b and c are untrue
Joint motion and therefore flexibility are affected by several physiological variables, such as the condition of articular cartilage. Name one other factor related to joint structure that may be negatively affected with aging. (Short Answer)
increased cross-links in tendons
Those over 85 years of age would be classified as (fill in the blank)
oldest old age
Evidence indicates that the age-related increase in body fat is primarily due to
a sedentary lifestyle
List 3 things that affect the rate of loss of bone mineral density. (Short Answer)
1) hormone levels
2) calcium intake
3) physical activity
List 2 factors in general that contribute to decreased joint ROM with age. (Short Answer)
1) increases in collagen cross-links in tendons and ligaments
2) degradation of articular cartilage
List 3 physical activity guidelines that are specific to older adults. (Short Answer)
1) physical activity should be done in bouts of at least 10 minutes
2) on a scale of 1-10 use 5-6 for moderate-intensity and 7-8 for vigorous
3) stretching is recommended for 2 days a week at least
List 3 ways to make balance exercises progressively more difficult. (Short Answer)
1) narrow the base of support
2) displace the center of mass
3) minimize the contribution of visual and proprioceptive pathways
Physical activity limitations increase with age, with approximately ____% reporting a severe disability
Most older adults have at least one chronic condition, and many have several. The most prevalent chronic condition in older adults is
All physiological functions decrease at the same rate with age. T/F?
The VO2 values of older trained subjects can often be similar to those of untrained subjects several decades younger.
While endurance training increases VO2 about 10% to 30% in previously sedentary older adults, this percentage of increase is considerably less than that observed in previously sedentary younger adults. T/F
In older individuals, intense resistance training programs result in equivalent increases in muscle fiber area and 1RM strength. T/F
Aerobic conditioning should always precede resistance training in the elderly. T/F
Between the ages of 25 and 75, men and women typically gain about ________ kg of fat.
The percentage of women over 50 who are expected to experience an osteoporotic fracture sometime over the course of their life is
When estrogen deficiency is present, the rate of bone loss can be as great as
5% each year
List four of those warning signs or symptoms for which exercise should be stopped and a physician should be consulted for women who are pregnant. (Short Answer)
vaginal bleeding, dyspnea before exertion, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscle weakness, calf pain or swelling, preterm labor, decreased fetal movement, and amniotic fluid leakage
The type of amenorrhea in which there is an absence of menarche in girls aged 16 and older is ______________ amenorrhea. (fill in the blank)
Studies indicate that the BMDs of amenorrheic female athletes are similar in density to those of postmenopausal women. T/F?
The type of amenorrhea in which there is an absence of menses for 3 or more months in females after menarche is _______________ amenorrhea. (fill in the blank)
Name the 3 interrelated components of the female athlete triad, and indicate which one of them is the precipitating factor (i.e., it leads to the other two) (Short Answer)
The three components are low energy availability, bone health, and menstrual status. Low energy availability leads to amenorrhea, which in turn leads to estrogen deficiency and then decreased bone health.
Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) that is ________ standard deviations or more below the mean for young, white women.
What type of precautions should be taken when conducting exercise testing with an osteoporotic individual? List 3 of them. (Short Answer)
1) avoid high impact activities
2) avoid significant spinal flexion
3) initial exercise prescription should be light intensity
List 5 risk factors for osteoporosis. (Short Answer)
female, older age, estrogen deficiency, low weight or BMI, and diet low in calcium
It is estimated that 10.2 million Americans over the age of 50 have osteoporosis, but it is estimated that another 43.4 million have low bone mass, which is called ___________________. (fill in the blank)
List 2 common sites for osteoporotic fractures. (Short Answer)
hip, vertebrae, and wrist
Which of the following is NOT an absolute contraindication for exercise during pregnancy?
poorly controlled seizure disorder
List 3 benefits of exercise during pregnancy. (Short Answer)
1) avoid excessive weight gain
2) lower risk of gestational diabetes
3) greater psychological well-being
4) less fatigue
5) having a shorter and easier delivery
Heat dissipation is a potential problem for a pregnant woman who is exercising. Which of the following is NOT true regarding heat dissipation during pregnancy?
A pregnant woman decreases her heat production at rest and during exercise as a safety mechanism to protect the fetus.
Supplying adequate nutrition during pregnancy is a potential problem during pregnancy. It is estimated that pregnancy requires an extra ___________ kcal per day.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding exercise testing during pregnancy?
Exercise during normal pregnancy requires a submaximal graded exercise test (GXT) to establish safe exercise limits.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding exercise recommendations during pregnancy?
Exercise at an altitude of >6,000 ft (1,829 m) is generally safe for most pregnant women.
Resistance training intensity should be kept low enough so that at least 8 repetitions can be performed.
Both a and b are untrue.
Gestational length is typically ______________ for exercising women than for nonexercising women.
Exercise should be avoided in the supine position after the first trimester. Why? (Short Answer)
The enlarged uterus can apply pressure to nearby blood vessels, limiting venous return in the mother.
Oxygen delivery during exercise is kept fairly constant under reasonable exercise intensities in a pregnant woman. Name two physiological changes that allow the mother to maintain adequate cardiac output. (Short Answer)
1) increased maternal blood volume
2) decreased systemic vascular resistance
List at least two instances when physician guidance is needed during pregnancy (these instances differ from absolute contraindications). (Short Answer)
The mother has a cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disorder, severe maternal obesity, or maternal underweight status
What resistance training load is likely most beneficial for an osteoporotic adult?
60% to 80% 1RM
Resistance training in children and adolescents is recommended to help maximize bone density. What percent of 1RM is recommended for this purpose in this age group?
In addition to resistance training, other types of activity are encouraged to promote BMD. List two such activities.
weight-bearing activities such as jumping, skipping, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics
Low intake of calcium and vitamin D can limit the accumulation of bone during childhood, and it is estimated that only _____% of boys and _____% of girls have the recommended levels of calcium intake.
Proposed benefits of exercise during pregnancy include all the following EXCEPT
shorter length of pregnancy
Return to exercise in the postpartum period should be gradual and based on the woman's health and can generally occur _______ weeks after vaginal delivery.
4 to 6
Risk factors for osteoporosis do NOT include
The female athlete triad includes what three interrelated components? (Short Answer)
energy availability, bone health, and menstrual status
Several studies have reported that one-third to one-half of elite female athletes may have
disordered eating habits
In a landmark study of athletic amenorrhea, the bones of young amenorrheic athletes were found to be comparable in density to those of
Osteoporosis equally affects both men and women as well as all ages and ethnicities. (T/F)
Which of the following is a not a relative contraindication for exercise during pregnancy?
preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension)
Which of the following is a not an absolute contraindication for exercise during pregnancy?
During pregnancy, HR, SV, and minute ventilation at rest and during exercise are lower than they were before pregnancy. (T/F)
During pregnancy, vigorous exercise should be avoided because it could compromise uterine blood flow. (T/F)
Concerns about exercise during pregnancy target which four crucial areas? (Short Answer)
heat dissipation, oxygen delivery, nutrition supply, and premature delivery
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