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Chapter 13: Congress
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
an attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill
Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the votes.
districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 percent or more
an alliance between Republican and conservative Democrats
the legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or Senate
a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking
a vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators
an association of congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose
committees on which both senators and representatives serve
a joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the senate and house versions of the same bill
a legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern
a legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters
an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the president
a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president
One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
the same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
"hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
a congressional process by which a speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting
a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor
an order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor
an order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
a roll call in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present
a rule used by the senate to end or limit debate
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business
a congressional voting procedure in which members shout "yea" in approval or "nay" in disapproval, permitting members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills
a congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted
A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second.
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names.
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage