Chapter 5 - Language
Terms in this set (26)
Govern how sounds are combined to form words. The words champagne, double, and occasion have same meaning in French and English-pronounced differently because they have different phonological rules.
Govern the way symbols can be arranged.
Ex. Whiskey makes you sick when you're well.
Whiskey, when you're sick, makes you well.
Yoda - "Your father he is."
What make it possible for us to agree bikes are for riding and books are for reading.
They help us understand the meaning of individual words, but the often don't explain how language operates in everyday life. - "Let's get together tomorrow."
Tell us what uses and interpretations of a message are appropriate in a given context.
"I want to see you." - interpreted different from boss than your lover.
-People in individual relationships create their own sets of pragmatic rules. Ex. humor and jokes you exchange with friends
-Rendleman's friend leaving the vulgar voicemail
The worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
Ex. People think differently when they change languages
Native Americans communicate completely differently. We use nouns when they may use verbs.
The process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others with whom the communicator wants to identify convergence
Ex. Employees speak more like their superiors, supervisors adopt the speech style of managers, and managers converge toward their bosses.
Communicators who want to set themselves apart from others adopt the strategy of divergence, speaking in a way that emphasizes their differences.
Ex. Members of ethnic groups might use their own dialect as a way of showing solidarity with one another
Powerless speech mannerisms
Hedges - "I guess I'd like to...I'm kinda dissapointed."
Hesitations - "Uh, can I have a minute of your time?"
Polite forms - "Excuse me, sir."
Tag questions - "Don't you think we should give it another try?"
Disclaimers - "I probably shouldn't say this, but..."
Includes words, phrases, and expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between females and males or exclude, trivialize, or diminish either sex.
Ex. Working mother, Unmarried mother, 200 terms for promiscuous
Language that is Racist dur
Consists of words and phrases that have more than one commonly accepted definition.
-20 year friendship ends at the altar
-I killed it at the dog training
-Gee, it's really unusual, I've never seen anything like it
Convenient ways of generalizing about similarities between several objects, people, ideas or events
*High-level abstractions are a useful kind of verbal shortcut.
Ex. You need to have a better attitude - rather than a specific problem
Innocuous terms substituted for blunt ones.
Ex. She passed away, he received a Dear John
Gains meaning by comparison.
Ex. "It hurts a little, I'm pretty sore."
"Your neck is small compared to a giraffe."
Usually mistaken assumption that people or things are consistent and unchanging.
Ex. He is always late. He will always be my baby boy.
Replaced the personal I with the less immediate construction of it's.
Clearly identifies the speaker as the source of a message.
3 parts to be complete....It describes (1) the others behavior (2) your feelings, and (3) the consequences the other's behavior has for you
I get embarrassed when you talk bad about my grades in front of our friends. I'm afraid they'll think I'm stupid.
It statements and I language examples
1. It's nice to see you
I'm glad to see you.
2. It's a boring class.
I'm bored in the class.
Has the effect of canceling the thought that precedes it.
"You're really a great person, but I think we ought to stop seeing each other."
Expressions judgement of other person.
"You left this place a mess."
Implies that the issue is the concern and responsibility of both the speaker and receiver of a message.
"We have a problem, we can't seem to talk about money without fighting.
Clearly expressing their thoughts, feelings and wants.
Kareems has most points ever
Kareem is the greatest basketball player ever.
Conclusions arrived at from an interpretation of evidence
Ex. Why are you mad at me?
I'm not mad. Why are you insecure?
Seems to describe something but really announces the speaker's attitude about it
If you approve, say
If you disapprove, say