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Chapter 25: Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas
Terms in this set (35)
What were wealthy Latin American residents angered by?
The political and economic power of colonial officials and by high taxes and imperial monopolies.
What caused colonial revolutions in Latin America?
Events in Europe causing a crisis of legitimacy.
What did Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and Spain cause in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia?
Dissenters overthrew Spanish colonial officials, but they were able to reassert control eventually. More revolutions started in 1810.
Who declared independence in Venezuela in 1811 and how did the Spanish combat the revolution?
A Creole-led junta declared independence, and the Spanish were able to rally free blacks and slaves because the Creoles weren't interested in issuing rights to African Americans.
What did Bolivar do after defeating the Spanish in 1824?
He tried to forge Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador into a single nation (Gran Columbia), but failed.
Give a brief overview of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata (Argentina).
It was created after a declaration of independence from junta leaders, but the government ended up being too weak, spiraling it into chaos.
Give a brief overview of Mexico's striving for independence.
A violent rebellion first took place under Hidalgo, then Morelos. Spanish loyalist forces defeated the insurrection, after which Colonel Iturbide declared Mexico's independence and declared himself emperor. Eventually, he was executed and Mexico became a republic.
Give a brief overview of Brazil's fight for independence.
After Napoleon took Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil. King John VI eventually returned home, and left his son Pedro as king of Brazil. He pushed for independence under intense demand, and ruled until there was pressure for him to abdicate, leaving the throne for his son Pedro II. He was overthrown in 1819. Brazil was a constitutional monarchy.
What was the difference between the USA and Latin America when it came to constitutionalism.
Latin American countries were inexperienced when it came to popular politics, causing most constitutions to fail.
What did Latin American countries find difficult to do?
Define the political role of the church, subordinate an army, and limit the power of elites in civilian government.
How did Britain respond to Canada's demands for political reform?
They established limited self-rule, and the provincial governments eventually established a confederation with the central government in Ottawa.
What led Latin American military leaders to hold more influence than those in the United States?
Latin American countries exhibited a slow development of powerful political institutions.
What did the exclusion of large numbers of poor citizens from early American constitutions end up causing?
Populist leaders claiming to support the masses often role up to challenge constitutional limits. These leaders often also supported a small fraction of upper-class families.
What was a main cause of weak central governments in Latin America?
These new nations were unable to stop local leaders from rising up to lead large secessionist movements.
Name the three largest multistate confederation breakdowns in Latin America.
1)Central America split from Mexico and broke up into five separate nations. 2) Gran Columbia broke up into Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador. 3) Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia declared independence from Argentina.
What did the United States' defeat of Mexico net them in terms of land?
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado.
Who defeated Peru and Bolivia, taking their sea access?
What happened between Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay?
Argentina and Brazil both fought over the territory, but eventually both recognized Uruguayan independence.
What also proved to pose a significant challenge to new nations in the Americas, and how as it handled?
Amerindian resistance posed a substantial problem, but it was suppressed by both North and South America by the 1880s.
What did the universal ideals of freedom and citizenship severely contest in the new American nations?
The reality of slavery, which survived until the 1850s.
What was slavery weakened by in the 1800s?
1) Abolition in some of the northern U.S. states. 2) Termination of the African slave trade to the Americas. 3)The freedom of tens of thousands of slaves who joined revolutionary armies in Spanish American republics.
What passed abolition in the USA?
The 13th Amendment.
What led to abolition in the Caribbean colonies (Puerto Rico and Cuba)?
1) British naval pressure. 2) The overthrow of the French government. 3) Declining profits from sugar plantations.
What led to abolition in Brazil?
Pressure from the British and the heroism of former slaves who fought in the Brazilian war against Paraguay.
What increased after slavery ended in the Americas, and what did this 'thing' mostly come from?
Immigration; Europe in the early 1800s, Asia after 1850.
What two things came from increased immigration overarchingly?
Economic benefits as well as hostility to immigration (discrimination).
What came from a desire to build a common citizenship?
Pressure on immigrants to assimilate, as well as one "national" language being taught in school.
What other things in the Americas were influenced by immigrants?
Language, arts, music, and cultures of the American nations.
What happened with women's rights movements in the 1800s?
They made some progress in achieving equality, but most working women played little role in these movements.
What stayed after the abolition of slavery?
Harsh discrimination against those of African descent.
Where were people of mixed race treated better than in the United States?
Successful men and women of mixed race were treated fairly well in Latin America.
Why did so many American nations face economic growth in the 1800s?
There was an increased demand for foodstuff, minerals, timber, and other natural resources. There was also low wages and some industrialization.
What were the reasons that development slowed in Latin America?
1) Cyclical swings of international markets. 2) Limited industrialization. 3) Limited infrastructure. 4) Weak governments. 5) Political instability. 6) Internal and external conflict.
What happened between Latin Americans and Europeans?
Latin Americans became increasingly dependent of Europeans for technology and capital.
What is the only country that became a major industrial power in the Americas?
The United States.
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