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science pt 2
Terms in this set (58)
All living things convert fuel and food into energy
_____ are the smallest unit of matter. _____ are the smallest unit of life. ______ are the smallest level of ecology.
Atoms, Cells, Individual organisms
The main source of energy on Earth is _____
competition within members of the same species.
competition between members of different species
The portion of a plant in which the cells are not specialized is called the _______.
a change from one stage to the next.
_____ metamorphosis is a cycle in which the young look completely different than the adult. An example of such an organism is the butterfly. The four stages include the egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
_____ metamorphosis is a cycle in which the young look fairly similar to the adults. The dragonfly and grasshopper both go through this type of life cycle. The young are called nymphs and simply grow larger into adults.
_____ are single celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. The group consists of the kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea.
The remaining four kingdoms (Animal, Plant, Fungi, and Protist) are composed of _____ cells.
New cells come from existing cells. (This process is called ______.)
____ are membrane-bound structures within a eukaryotic cell.
all of the things within the cell other than the nucleus
contains cytosol, a clear, jelly-like substance made up mostly of water
a flexible barrier that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
proteins within it regulate the movement of molecules in and out of the cell
threadlike proteins that give a cell its shape and provides a framework for transportation within the cell
organelle that stores and protects the DNA
can regulate cellular activity by turning genes on and off
where copies of DNA are made into mRNA via transcription
structure that uses RNA to make proteins for the cell via translation
a network of tubules near the nucleus
the_____ ER has ribosomes and makes proteins
the _____ ER has no ribosomes and makes lipids for transport
organelles that convert chemical energy into usable ATP via cellular respiration
organelle that takes in proteins, makes sure they aren't defective, and "packages" them in vesicles to send to other parts of the cell or areas outside the cell
Golgi Complex / Golgi Apparatus
organelles that transport materials (water, food, and waste) throughout the cell
Vesicles and Vacuoles
what are the two cell parts that animals have that plants do not
Centrioles and Lysosome
What do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
chloroplasts, cell walls, and a large central vacuole.
The physical characteristics of the organisms divide them into three major domains:
prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaebacteria.
Organisms are further organized and classified into a taxonomic hierarchy by the terms:
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
type of tree that shed all of their leaves at a specific time/event (such as winter)
type of tree that do NOT shed all of their leaves at a specific time/event (such as winter)
_____ is the molecule that encodes the instructions for all living things. It passes on information, such as how the organism will appear and behave
in DNA - A is always paired with __
G is always paired with __
_____ is a similar molecule that performs functions within the cell. Like DNA, it is made out of nucleic acids, but RNA does not contain the base Thymine. Instead, it uses Uracil. RNA is a molecule that assists in DNA in making things the cells need.
A is always paired with ____
G is always paired with _____
A ___ is a segment of one chromosome that codes for a specific trait (ex: flower color).
An ___ is a specific version of a gene for that trait. Different alleles encode for different versions of the trait (ex: purple flowers).
A purebred, or _____, organism has matching alleles for a particular trait, either both dominant or both recessive (BB or bb).
A hybrid, or ______, organism has one of each, a dominant allele and recessive allele for a specific trait (Bb).
The _____ (what genes an organism has) determines the _____ (what traits you see).
____ adaptations are changes in physical features that help the organism survive. Usually, if a feature is mentioned, it's a ___ adaptation.
ex:beak of a bird changes to make it easier to get food;
_____ adaptations are things that organisms do naturally, usually to avoid harm. Usually, if a behavior or action in response to something is mentioned, it's a behavior adaptation. Verbal communication (mockingbird imitating another bird's sound), migration, hibernation,
Specialized pores in the leaves called ____ help regulate the amount of air entering and exiting and water transpiring (evaporating).
Two types of asexual reproduction in plants are ______ & _____
budding and spore dispersal
Sexual reproduction requires the fertilization and joining of two ____ cells, cells with half the normal number of chromosomes.
Two different plants can reproduce through ______. The offspring are a genetic mix of each parent.
One plant may reproduce using its own haploid cells through _______. The offspring are genetically similar, but not genetically identical to the parents.
protects the internal parts of the body from foreign matter, regulates body temperature, and gets rid of some wastes such as water and salt through perspiration.
protects the organs, gives the body structure and support, works with the muscular system for movement, and stores essential minerals like calcium
moves body parts working with the skeletal system (ex: leg) or materials (ex: food via intestine, blood via heart)
detects and processes information and activates body responses to that information
creates gametes (male: sperm, female: eggs) and facilitates creating offspring
transports material (ex: oxygen) throughout the body
Cardiovascular / Circulatory system
breaks down food that is eaten through physical and chemical reactions, then either absorbs it (small intestine) or passes it from the body (rectum)
produces hormones that are used by other parts of the body to regulate, react, or grow
protects body from disease and infection and removes excess water from around the organs
brings oxygen into the bloodstream and releases carbon dioxide from the bloodstream
controls water balance and removes wastes from the bloodstream
______ - growth in response to gravity.
Gravitropism / Geotropism
______ growth in response to light
______ - growth in response to touch.
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