Histo - 604 Midterm Info

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The male repro tract is made up of 4 main things:
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Terms in this set (128)
The efferent ducts in small rodents and cats will _________________ before entering the epididymisfunnel into one tubeThe efferent ducts will _________ and ___________ before the epididymisreabsorb fluid concentrate spermThe efferent ducts in dog, goat, pig, sheep, bull, and horse the efferent ducts will __________________ before entering the epididymisnot merge, stay as individual tubesThe _____________ carries sperm away from the testis. This is a series of wide channels that merge and open into multiple ______________rete testis efferent ductsThe efferent ductules will empty into the __________. This is a ___________ opening in rodents and cats and ___________ in the large animal and dogs.head of epididymis single multipleCompared the the epididymis, the lumen of the efferent ducts is ________.smallerThe efferent ducts coiled with _________ epithelium that can be ______________ and the nuclei will be at different levels, may be at the top or bottom of the cellsimple cuboidal to columnar ciliated or nonciliatedThe epith in the efferent ductules can be ciliated of nonciliated. The ciliated cells are responsible for _______________and the nonciliated cells _____________stirring fluids for homogenous reabsorption fluid resorptionThe cells in the efferent ductules have __________ for ___________lysosomes endocytosisThe microvilli in the efferent ductules have _____________ to stimulate ____________androgen receptors - estrogen regulate fluid resorptionThe epididymis has three parts:head body tailThe sperm in the head of the epididymis are:non-motile non-fertile proximal cytoplasmic droplets low disulfide crosslinkingThe sperm in the body of the epididymis are:a little motile a little fertile translocation of cytoplasmic droplets moderate to high degree of disulfide crosslinking can bind to oocytesThe sperm in the tail of the epididymis are:motile fertile distal cytoplasmic droplets high degree of disulfide crosslinking can bind to oocyteThe ___________ part of the epididymis absorbs fluid to concentrate the spermheadThe epididymis has pseudostratified _________ and __________ cells along with _______________. There will also be concentrated ____________basal principal smooth muscle spermInside the head of the epididymis ___________ will be secreted that will help mature the sperm. The principal cells will have microvilli that will inc surface area for ____________ and the exchange of nutrientsproteins water absorptionIn the tail of the epididymis the _____________ will be thicker, the cell will be _____________, and the microvilli will be ____________. The main function in the tail is __________________smooth muscle shorter shorter sperm storageTo determine if you are looking at the head or the tail of the epididymis look at the _____________. In the head they will be ____________ and in the tail they will be _________________. You can also look at the _____________. This will be _____________ in the head and ____________ in the tail. The sperm will also be more concentrated in the ____________principal cells tall short smooth muscle thin thick tailThe vas deferens will have a thick layer of ______________ and mainly functions to ______________ the spermsmooth muscle - circular and longitudinal layers transportThe vas deferens will have epith that are tall with short _____________, there will be strong ________________ here as wellmicrovilli muscle contractionsWhat are the three male accessory sex glands in order?seminal vesicle prostate bulbourethral (cowper's)The _________ is a term used for a dilated part of a duct or canalampullaThe seminal vesicles are highly convoluted tube with a central lumen that will stain ________ and contain contractile ______________. There is _______________ glandular epitheliumred smooth muscle pseudostratified columnarWhich accessory sex gland is made up of large irregular dilated and highly folded sacs?seminal vesicleWhich accessory sex gland has secretions rich in fructose to nourish the sperm?seminal vesicleThe seminal vesicle gland is not present in ___________ or ___________-carnivores marsupials (pretty much just in large animals)The basal cells will have lipid droplets in the _____________ gland in only ____________seminal vesicle bovineWhich accessory sex gland contributes 15-30% of tubuloalveolar secretions?prostateWhich accessory sex gland secreted proteolytic enzymes?prostateWhich accessory sex gland secretes alkaline secretions that neutralize the vaginal tract and has a milky white color?prostateWhich accessory sex gland has lobes?prostateThe prostate is made up of three regions called the ___________, _____________ and ________.mucosa submucosa main prostate glands - disseminate and compact., stain the darkestThe Compact glands in the prostate have ______________ of CT and the disseminate glands have ________________ CT. The disseminate glands are located near the ____________ and the compact glands are near the _____________not a lot a lot submucosa capsule of the prostateDogs can be seen with difficulty urinating due to compression of the urethra from a ______________________. The treatment is castrationbenign prostate hyperplasiaThe small pea sized structure is the _________________ glandbulbourethral/Cowper'sThe bulbourethral gland has ____________ epith with microvilli and a nucleus located in the ____________ regioncolumnar basalWhich accessory sex gland has a viscous, clear, mucous secretion into the urethra before ejaculation?Bulbourethral/Cowper'sWhat are the three regions of the urethra?prostatic - bladder to colliculus membranous - to the bulbous penis spongy - from corpus spongiosumThe _________________ is located on the caudal edge of the prostate and is the entry site for the ductus deferens, vesicular glands, and prostate glandcolliculus seminalisThe urethra is made up of ______________ epithtransitional - squeezes during urinationThe ______________ and _____________ will fill with blood to cause an erectioncorpus cavernosum corpus spongiosumThe male urethra has three layers in the muscularis externa. There is _______________ near the bladder and ______________ distallysmooth muscle skeletal muscleUrethral glands can be found in which species?horse catA vascular type penis can be found in which species?dog cat horseThe ______________ is found around the urethra and the ________________ is found on the dorsal side of the peniscorpus spongiosum corpus cavernosumThe __________ can be found in a carnivore's penisos penisThe tip of the penis is called the ______________ and in the cat it has __________glands penis cornified spines - induce ovulationBulls and pigs have ___________ type of penisfibrousIn a fibrous penis there will be a ________________ that is made of dense irregular CT, elastic fibers, and smooth muscletunica albugineaWhat are the three parts of the oviduct?infundibulum ampulla isthmusThe diameter of the ampulla is ____________ than the isthmuslargerThe function of the oviduct are the transport the ____________, nurture the egg and sperm via producing ____________ that contains glucose, _____________ of sperm, and ____________ contractionsegg to the uterus - ciliated cells mucous - nonciliated cells capacitation peristalticThe oviduct's _______________ part will capture the oocyte while the ___________ area is where fertilization will occurinfundibulum ampullaThe infundibulum has ________ and the lymph vessel help give it its rigidity. These contain ___________ cellsfimbria ciliatedThe ampulla of the oviduct is made of _______________ epith that are highly ___________. There are _________ and __________ cells, the height and presence of cilia is regulated by _________simple columnar - pseudostratified in sow and cow folded ciliated - move egg nonciliated - secretory hormonesAs the ampulla cont into the isthmus the height of the mucosa fold ___________ and the smooth muscle __________dec thickensThe outside layer of the ampulla and isthmus is the __________ that is made of mesothelium, CT, and blood vesselsserosaThe ____________ is the site of implantationuterusWhat are the four layers of the uterus?perimetrium - outside, tunica serosa myometrium endometrium - contains uterine glands epitheliumIn the ewe, the epithelium in the uterus will contain _________. Don't know why they are thereectopic melanocytesThe uterus contains ____________ and _________ arteriesspiral straightThe ruminant uterus has ________ that are implantation sites not a uterine gland. These areas are highly __________, have __________ CT, and numerous white blood cells can be foundcaruncles vascularized looseThe maternal side of the placenta is called the ___________ and the fetal side is called the _____________. These together are called a ____________caruncle cotyledon placentomeThe epith in the uterus is __________columnar to pseudostratifiedDuring the proliferative phase, the functional layer grows, estrogen stimulates ________ of stem cells in the basal region. The glands and spiral arteries __________ and the epith cells store __________mitosis elongate glycogenDuring the secretory phase, progesterone induces secretion, the epith cells secrete __________, the endometrial glands coil with a large lumen, there is a thicker ___________ with edema, and the spiral arteries are extensive. If no fertilization occurs the CL degenerates, ______ and _______ dec, and the endometrium involutesglycogen mucosa estrogen progesteroneDuring the menstrual phase, the spiral arteries will ____________ the endometrial cells will go through ________ and there is shedding of the functional layer. Remodeling will begin and the stem cell will proliferate in the basal regionconstrict - arteries rupture apoptosisWhat are the two layers of the endometrium?functional basilar layersThe cervix has two functions:protective barrier against pathogens blocks sperm entry during anestrusOn the uterine side of the cervix there are __________ that are made of simple columnar epith. On the vaginal side the cervix is made of _____________ epithcervical glands - mucous stratified squamousIn the cyclic changes of the cervix the epith height and keratinization depend on hormones. Estrogen will __________ the epith while progesterone will _________thin thickenSecretions from the cervix in the proliferative phase will be ____________ so the passage of sperm is easier. During the luteal phase it is _______ to help protect the fetusthin/watery mucousThe bovine cervix will have _____________epith foldsIn an immature vagina the epith is ______________ with basal cuboidal cell layer with underlying loose CT with high nuclear density few collagen strandssquamous nonkeratinizedIn early proestrus, the vagina will have __________ epith with surface flattened submucosal stromal edema and increased collagensquamousDuring anestrus, in the vagina there will be _____________ epith situated on atrophic lamina proprialow cuboidal stratifiedWhat are the three layer of the embryo?ectoderm mesoderm endodermWhat hormones does the placenta make?progesterone gonadotropinsThe placenta provides a physical and biological barriers against the environment and _____________maternal immune systemthe ______________ is the fetal contribution to the placentaallantochorionic membraneThe ____________ contains blood vessels and supplies nutrients to the embryo. This only lasts 21 days in the dog/cat and 8 weeks in the horseyolk sacThe __________ will lift from the sides of the developing fetus and fuse. The outer layer becomes the chorion and the outer layer the __________amnion chorion amnionThe _________ comes from the hindgut of the fetus and collects urine and feces. This will rupture in the vagina at parturition in horses, dogs, and catsallantoisIn a _______________ placenta the yolk sac will develop before the allantois. This is formed when the yolk sac wall combines with the chorion and contacts uterine wall. Vessels are derived from yolk sac, and this placenta is transient in all domestic animal specieschoriovitellineThe _____________ placenta is formed by the fusion of the chorion and allantois. The allantochorion then contacts the endometrium. This is also the most common type of placenta in most mammals. This is very well vascularized by the umbilical arteries and veins that are derived from the allantoischorioallantoicThe __________ is the principal layer that contacts the endometrium. This will divide into the ____________ and ________chorion chorion frondosum chorion laeveThe _____________ is highly modified into folds and villi to inc surface area for exchangechorion frondosum - rough chorionThe ______________ is not modified for exchange with maternal endometriumchorion laeve - smooth chorionChorioallanotic placentas are classified on deciduate formation and endometrium tissue lost at birth. The two types under this classification are:deciduate nondeciduateIn a deciduate placenta the uterine lining forms the maternal part of the placenta at the base of the endometrium. There are specialized decidual cells that are large, darkstaining, and hormone producing. The endometrium will be shed at birth with a hemorrhage likely. Deciduate placentas can be found in which three species?carnivores primates rodentsIn a nondeciduate placenta there will be minimal loss of endometrium bc they are non-invasive so there will be low blood loss. The placenta will be able to peel away from the endometrium. These types of placentas can be found in which species?hooved animalsPlacentas can be classified based on the shape of contact. What are the 4 types of placenta types in this classification?Diffuse cotyledonary zonary discoidIn a diffuse placenta the contact area will be ____________ and __________ will be present in the horse while in the pig there are ___________entire surface microplacentomes chrionic villiIn a cotyledonary placenta the contact are will be ____________ from the fetal side and ________________ from the maternal side. Together these will make __________________localized tufts of frondosum uterine caruncles placentomesIn a zonary placenta there will be a ______________ where contact is madefrondosum bandIn a doscoid placenta there will be a ______________ where contact is madeflattened discDiffuse placentas can be found in which species?pig - chorionic villi mare -microplacentomesCotyledonary placentas can be found in which species?cow eweZonary placentas can be found in which species?dogDiscoid placentas can be found in which species?primatesClassification of placentas can also be done by the number of layers between the fetus and mother. What are the four types of placentas under this category?Epitheliochorial - 3 maternal Synepitheliochorial - 2 maternal Endotheliochorial - 1 maternal Hemochorial - no maternal All of these have three layers in the fetal sideHow do you tell if it is maternal or fetal RBCs?fetal will have a nucleusWhat are the three fetal and maternal layers in the placenta?Fetal: endothelium, mesoderm, epithelium of chorion (trophoblast cells) Maternal: epithelium of uterus, CT of uterus, and endothelium of uterusIn the epitheliochorial placenta there are _______ maternal layers. These types of placentas are found in which species?3 horse pig donkey whaleIn the synepitheliochorial placenta there are __________ maternal layers. These types of placentas are found in which species?2 - trophoblasts cells fuse with maternal epith to form syncytial cells. Cow, goat, sheep, deer (most non-deciduate hoofed species)What kind of placenta will you find binucleated/multinucleated cells? What are these cells called?synepitheliochorial syncytiotrophoblasts - hybrid cell, act as a defense barrier to prevent immune cell invasionIn the endotheliochorial placenta there are _____________ maternal layers. These types of placentas are found in which species?1 carnivores and elephantsIn the hemochorial placenta there are _____________ maternal layers. These types of placentas are found in which species?no- maternal blood has direct contact with trophoblasts humans and primatesPlacentas can also be classified by their 3D shape/structure. What are the four (3) types of palcentas?folded villous lamellar/labyrinthineA folded placenta can be found in which species? these will have macroscopic _________ and microscopic ________pigs rugae plicaA villous placenta can be found in which species? This is seen with _____________ into the ___________equine and ruminants chorionic villi endometrial cryptsA labyrinthine/lamellar placenta can be found in which species? This is seen with a complex network of channels and lamellae fold of ________________ and the endothelium envelopes the maternal blood vessels.carnivores syncytiotrophoblastsWhat are the four categories that a pig's placenta falls into?nondeciduate - no loss of uterine tissue Diffuse - connections throughout epitheliochorial - all 3 maternal layers folded - macroscopic rugae and microscopic plicaWhat are the four categories that a horse's placenta falls into?nondeciduate - no loss of uterine tissue Diffuse - connections throughout epitheliochorial - all 3 maternal layers villous - microcotyledons, microcaruncles, and microplacentomesIn a microplacentome of a __________ placenta there are _________ that are spaces for glandular secretionshorse's areolaeIn a horse's placenta there is a free floating __________ that is a calcified bodyallantoic calculiWhat are the four categories that a cow's/ewe's placenta falls into?nondeciduate to partially deciduate - no loss of uterine tissue cotyledonary - focal areas of attachment synepitheliochorial - 2 maternal layers, fusion of chorion and uterine epith cells villous - placentomes