disproportionate economic, political, and military influence, Tend to have large populations and extensive territory, Large economy that generates leverage, based on GDP, exporters want access to their large markets which gives them leverage, Higher military capabilities, spend more on national defense, have access to better technology, have global interests that extend beyond their territorial boundaries, have disproportionate influence on the international system -War to defeat ISIS, Trump pulled troops because ISIS almost lost all territory but everyone disagrees because they could easily reconstitute
- Syrian government (Assad regime) violent represses, activates "internationalized" civil war, political vacuum gave ISIS opportunity to take over
-- Syrian government (backed by Iran and Russia) versus rebels (backed by US and Turkey)
- ISIS v. large international coalition (Syria, Russia, US, Turkey, Syrian Kurds, Iraq, Iran)
- Turkey v. Syrian Kurds in northern Syria over territory
- Israel v. Iranian backed militia groups based in Syria
Trump pulled out troops because Erdogan (Turkish Pres.) promised to finish the war, YPG is now abandoned against Turkey.
Hard to end because so many sides repeatedly send aid and shift the prospective winner.
Syrian rebels vs. Assad regime, Syrian government (Assad) supported by Iran and Russia, Syrian rebels supported by Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and US (initially); ISIS uses the political vacuum in Syria to seize their territory and become a real threat which generated large coalition to defeat ISIS (US, Russia, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Europe) but these countries all have very different interests about Syria, US just withdrew troops