Upgrade to remove ads
Human Growth and Development - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (48)
1. Each molecule of DNA is called a(n):
1. Each reproductive cell contains:
23 chromosomes (one from each of a person's 23 pairs)
Reproductive cells are called:
Gamete (sperm or ova)
The total collection of genes that an individual has is called his or her:
Genotype: an organism's entire genetic inheritance and potential
Each individual inherits 23 chromosomes from their mother and 23 chromosomes from their father. In addition, epigenetic effects create an individual's appearance and behavior to create a:
Phenotype: the observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits
Genetic _____________ distinguishes each person and allows for adaptation.
The name of the full set of genes that provide the instructions for making living organisms is the:
Identical twins are also called twins.
Monozygotic twins originate from one zygote that splits apart early in development.
Fraternal twins are also called twins.
Dizygotic twins are formed when two separate sperm fertilize two separate ova at roughly the same time.
When the effects of genes add up to make the phenotype, they are called_________ genes.
Brown-eyed Alma has a blue-eyed mother and a brown-eyed father. In this case, her brown eyes were determined by a ____allele.
1. Lacy has a recessive gene in her genotype that is not expressed in her phenotype. She is a(n)______ of that gene.
Carrier: a person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in their phenotype
Michael is color-blind. His gene for color blindness is most likely
a gene inherited from his mother and is a recessive gene located on his X chromosome.
Almost every trait is___________ , which means it is affected by many genes.
Cindy is doing a presentation on prenatal development and wants to present the three main periods of prenatal development in order from conception to birth. Cindy's presentation uses the following order:
• Germinal Period - First 2 weeks of development; rapid cell division and differentiation occurs
• Embryonic Period - Week 3 - 8; basic forms of all body structures develop
• Fetal Period - 9 weeks until birth; fetus grows in size and matures
Before differentiation begins, the first cells of the zygote are called_____ cells.
During the germinal period, the first task of the zygote's outer cells is:
The first task of the zygote's outer cells is to implant themselves in the lining of the uterus.
The germinal period ends approximately _______ _______ after conception.
What is the main function of the placenta?
The main function of the placenta is to surround and protect the developing fetus.
Around day 14 of the embryonic period, the __________ appears. It will eventually become the neural tube.
The primitive streak
The neural tube will become the:
The central nervous system (aka the brain and spinal cord)
The longest period of prenatal development is the period.
Proximodistal (prenatal growth from 5 months to birth)
The age of viability is the time when the preterm newborn:
Can survive outside of the uterus
The critical factor in attaining the age of viability is:
Brain maturation is the critical factor in attaining the age of viability.
1. The_______ starts the sequence of events that prepares the fetus for delivery and starts labor.
In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:
The Apgar scale is used at one minute and five minutes after birth to:
To make sure the newborn is healthy
A baby is assessed at one minute after birth according to the Apgar scale. Three of the five vital signs are good, but the baby is weak and inactive and grimaces. The two vital signs the medical team is concerned about are:
Muscle tone/activity and grimace response/reflexes are the two areas presenting concern for this baby. Their pulse, respiration, and appearance/color are all good.
In the third stage of labor, the:
placenta is delivered
Compared to vaginal births, C-section births:
C-sections have increased risk of complications compared to vaginal births.
An alternative to giving birth in a hospital is to arrange to give birth at home. This option is especially popular in Europe, where home births appear to have:
Home births appear to have fewer complications than those in hospitals.
Kelley just had a baby and now is experiencing a sense of inadequacy and sadness. She may have:
The phenomenon in which fathers experience symptoms of pregnancy and birth is known as:
Down syndrome is also called:
Jeremy inherited _______, a genetic disorder characterized by uncontrollable tics and explosive verbal outbursts.
A teratogen is any agent or condition that increases the risk for:
Teratogen is any agent or condition, including viruses, drugs, and/or chemicals, that can increase the risk for birth defects, damage to the placenta, damage to the embryo or fetus, and/or spontaneous abortion.
Jill is 3 years old. She is hyperactive and learning-disabled. Her doctor suggests that Jill's problems could be the result of prenatal exposure to_________ , though he stresses that the link is not straightforward at this time.
Behavioral teratogens (tend to harm the prenatal brain development)
1. The first days and weeks after conception (the germinal and embryonic periods) are________for body formation, but the entire fetal period is a__________ period for brain development.
1. Thresholds, as they relate to harm from any teratogen, are difficult to set because one teratogen may________ the harm from another teratogen.
Mandy is pregnant yet she still smokes cigarettes, drinks alcohol, and does not eat well. Her baby may be at increased risk for the development of:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and other developmental issues
One reason male fetuses are more vulnerable than female fetuses may be that the:
The Y chromosome has fewer genes, and the second X chromosome in females provides protection from recessive gene expression by carrying a dominant trait.
Early prenatal care can help decrease the risk of prenatal abnormalities. However, it CANNOT provide pregnant women with information about:
The exact threat of teratogens, or the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and genetic disorders
1. Babies born under 1,000 grams (2 pounds 3 ounces) are considered:
An extremely low birth weight
A baby born three or more weeks early is called:
Research indicates that alcoholism may be caused by:
Genetic predisposition and environmental factors (aka nature and nurture)
Eyeballs change shape at typical stages of development, including puberty and middle adulthood. This makes it more likely that______ will increase at puberty, and__________ will decrease during middle adulthood.
The statistic that indicates how much of the variation in a particular trait can be traced to genes is called:
1. Risks to development apparent at conception, pregnancy, and birth can be______if mothers and fathers, professionals, and the community work to promote healthy prenatal development.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Growth and Development - Chapter 1
Human Growth and Development - Chapter 3
Human Growth and Development - Chapter 4
Human Growth and Development - Chapter 5
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Biology Chapter 35
Human Growth and Development Final
Biology Chapter 27
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Self & Identity
Marketing 300: Exam #3: Chapter 11: Deve…