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Chapter 23 The Urinary System Test Bank Questions
Terms in this set (39)
A by-product of protein catabolism, __________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
A renal pyramid voids urine into the __________.
Blood plasma is filtered in the __________.
The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney.
Which of the following form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
Which of the following is not composed of cuboidal epithelium?
The thin segment of the nephron loop
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the __________.
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → cortical radiate a.
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as __________.
In a healthy kidney, very little __________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________, to form angiotensin I.
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as __________.
the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
Which of the following induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of one's nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
proximal convoluted tubules
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.
proximal convoluted tubule
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in __________.
appearance of that solute in the urine
Hypocalcemia stimulates __________.
secretion of parathyroid hormone
Natriuretic peptide inhibits __________ reabsorption by the collecting duct, which _________ urine output.
In the thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop, K+ reenters the cell from the interstitial fluid via the _________. K+ is then secreted into the tubular fluid.
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the __________.
countercurrent multiplier system
Aldosterone acts on the __________.
distal convoluted tubule
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone?
Decreased urine volume
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the __________.
body's water volume is high
Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures __________ and is based on fluid flowing in the __________ direction in two adjacent tubules.
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is to __________.
supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.
The pigment responsible for the color of urine is called __________.
To meet the definition of polyuria, the minimum daily output of urine is __________.
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of __________.
A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate?
Inulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min. Why is this?
It is secreted by the renal tubules.
The __________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.
Micturition is another term for __________.
the elimination of urine
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