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APUSH Unit 5 ID Terms
Terms in this set (29)
Who: President James Monroe on Foreign Policy
When: December 2nd, 1823
Cause: Mexico wars, gaining their independence from Spain. Declared to congress that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to European colonization, and that the United States would not interfere in European affairs.
Phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas, used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains, West and more generally, as a justification for American Empire. People, mainly christians, believed it was their god given right to expand westward.
Commodore Matthew Perry/Opening of Japan
Who: America to Japan
What: Attempt to gain alliance with Japan
Cause: After the Monroe Doctrines and the acquisition of California ports, America wanted to trade with Japan, and ensure their alliance for if their ships left passengers stranded, and refueling. To do this, Japan had to break an ancient law.
Effect: Japan ended up opening it's ports to Americans.
Know Nothing Party
Nativist, anti-catholic third party organized in 1854 in reaction to large scale German and Irish immigration. The party's only presidential candidate was Richard Fillmore in 1856.
A California military commander, politician, and rancher. Shaped California from Mexico and helped gained their independence. Served in the first session of the California state senate.
Who: Texas from Mexico
What: Texas becoming independent from Mexico and a US state
Texas entered the US as a slave state in 1845. Americans had been settled and living there for a long time, but they were not a part of the US. They applied for the union a long time before, but did not enter and was put on the political back burner until the issue of slavery came up.
Who: America vs Mexico
What: War for Mexican territory in America
Cause: America wanted California and New Mexico. It was very controversial because it started on alleged unfair grounds.
Effect: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo fixed the border at the Rio Grande and extended the US to the Pacific coast annexing more than half a million square miles of Mexican territory.
Compromise of 1850
Who: Written by Henry Clay
What: Compromise for new states entering union on issue of slavery
Cause: With more than half a million square miles being added to the US, there was a debate over what states should be free, and what states should be slave states.
Effect: Admitted California as a free state, included a stronger fugitive slave law, and delayed determination of the slave status of the New Mexico and Utah territories.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Who: Stephen Douglas
What: Act for determining slavery
Allowed settlers in newly organized territories North of the Missouri border to decide the issue of slavery for themselves. Fury over the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 led to violence in Kansas and to the formation of the Republican party.
US supreme court decision in which Chief Justice Roger B Taney ruled that congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories, on the grounds that such a prohibition would violate the fifth amendment rights of slave holders, and that no black person could be a citizen of the united states.
Organized in 1854 by antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free Soilers in response to the passage of the Kansas Nebraska Act. They nominated John C Fremont for president in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
Formed in 1848 to oppose slavery in the territory acquired in the Mexican war. Nominated Martin Van Buuren for President in 1848. By 1854 most of the party's members had joined the republican party.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
December 1860, a special convention in SC voted to secede; FL, GA, AL, MI, LA, TX did the same; the 7 states met in Montgomery, AL and created the Confederate States of America; placed limits on the government's power to impose tarrifs and restrict slavery; President was Senator Jefferson Davis of MI and Alexander Stephens of GA
Who: Southern states seceded from the US
When: February 1861
Cause: The south felt like it had no voice in politics once Lincoln was elected. They seceded from the Union and created the Confederacy. Seven states, the first being South Carolina. It placed limits on the governments power to impose tariffs, and restrict slavery. People who hated slavery were in power, which was a huge risk to southern life. They did not want to be at the bottom of the American social ladder.
Effect: The confederacy adopted a constitution that explicitly protected slavery. Their secession began the civil war.
Battle of Gettysburg
Who: Union vs Confederacy
Where: Gettysburg, PA
When: July 1-3 1863
Cause: Lee's army had been winning, wanted to keep pushing North to sway Northern politicians to step down from war.
Effect: The largest number of casualties in history. It was the turning point of the war as well, from southern power to northern power. The south never again set foot in northern soil. It was also a huge blow to Southern morale, as they were also defeated in Vicksburg the same day.
Who: Union vs Confederacy
Cause: The debate over slavery and westward expansion. Seven southern states declared their secession after Lincoln was elected president and formed the confederacy. The south wanted to bring slavery anywhere, even into free states, which the north rejected. The South also thought they had the right to secede the Union at any time. The north was also industrializing and urbanizing, the upper south slavery began to die out, but the deep south was rural, nonindustrial, agricultural life based on slave labor. The southerners also hated the abolitionist movement, because they are afraid of slaves revolting. The north needed protective tariffs, which made the south lose money.
Effect: The eventual abolition in America.
Who: Pres Lincoln
When: Jan 1 1863
Cause: Military strategy in civil war that was seen as a necessity, it was not for the slave's emancipation. The north was frustrated with a lack of military success, and knew to weaken the south, was to hit their source of wealth. It would also solve the North's problem of lack of man power for the war.
Effect: It did not liberate all slaves. Only in states that were in rebellion against Union could slaves be free. People that lost slaves were not compensated as they had been before. It created a new system of labor, politics, and race relations. It also undermined forces in England that wanted to help the South. It also broadened the goals of the war.
What: First line across the continent
Where: Nebraska to CA
Cause: To join the eastern and western states
Effect: Became a vital link for the North in the war, carrying men and supplies to camps. Also vital to trade, commerce and travel, opening up more regions for settlement. Also caused an economic growth in the North, causing more jobs.
Cause:Yeomen of the north wanted to settle westward instead of large plantation slave owners taking up the land. The south feared the act would attract poor whites and european immigrants to the west.
Effect: Authorized congress to grant 160 acres of public land to a western settler who had to live on the land for 5 years.
What: President lincoln and johnson took moderate positions designed to being the south back to normal as quickly as possible.
Cause:To address how the seceding states would regain republican form of governments, the status of former confer leaders, and legal status of freedmen.
Effect: Reconstruction played against southern economy. Big cities had been destroyed and much of the livestock had been depleted. There were no farms or transportation. Meant to punish south, as well as give equal rights to freed blacks.
Cause: The union wins the civil war, many slaves had been declared free after the EP, but their legal status still remained unknown.
Effects: The southern states would dramatically increase their power in the HOR because slaves were counted, not as 3/5. The south remained very racist, to the point of being dangerous. Strict black code laws were set that forced blacks back into labor. In SC, because of black codes, blacks could only work on farms as servants.
Who: Reconstruction agency of the fed govt
Cause: To protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs healthcare, and landowning.
Effects: An important agency of early reconstruction that assisted many men in the South. The company did not hold up with black codes and racism, so they broadened their job to reconnecting families, and teaching freed slaves how to read and write. It also distributed 15 mill rations to Africans. Established colleges in the South.
When: Post civil war
Cause: Type of tenancy where landless workers, often former slaves, farmed land in exchange for farming supplies and a share of the crop. Became a widespread response to economic upheaval caused by abolition.
Effects: A way for penniless freedmen to make a living during the reconstruction era. It provided incentive to produce more of a crop, so it was economically sufficient.
Who: Group within the Republican Party
When: 1850s and 60s
Cause: Advocated strong resistance to the expansion of slavery, opposition to compromise with the south in the secession crisis, emancipation, arming of black soldiers, and equal civil and political rights for blacks during reconstruction. After the war they distrusted ex confess. Emphasized voting rights among freedmen.
Effects: Kept sectionalism alive by creating stricter rules for the south once attempting to urge U Grant to take actions against the KKK
When: 1866 in TN start
Cause: To terrorize former slaves who voted and held political office during reconstruction.
Effects: Racism in the south, multiple hate crimes, made it very difficult in the south for slaves to live a normal life, caused a lot of situation and set backs of blacks gaining rights.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by Southern states, which were forced to ratify it in order for them to regain representation in Congress.
The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.
US vs Reese
1873 court ruled in favor of officals who had barred african americans from voting, stating that the fifteenth amendment did not "confer the right of suffrage to anyone" but merely listed grounds on which states could not deny suffrage
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