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360 terms

NCCT STUDY CARDS

NCCT Student Study Guide
STUDY
PLAY
Homeostasis
When the internal environment of the body is functioning properly
Physiology
Science of the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body
Abduction
Lateral movement of the limbs away from the median plane of the body
Ectopic
Extrauterine pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum begins to develop outside of the uterus
Jejunum
Second part of the small intestine
Ileum
Third part of the small intestine
Duodenum
First part of the small intestine
Red Blood Cells
One of the vital functions of the long bones is the formation of
Hemiplagia
Unilateral paralysis that follows damage to the brain
Echocardiography
instrument used to record an image of the heart using an ultrasound (EKG)
Saliva
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion
Villi
Small finger-like projections in the small intestine where nutrients are absorbed into the blood
Decubitus Ulcers
Infected pressure sores on the skin
Hemorrhoids
Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
Carcinogenic
Cancer causing
Hernia
Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
Cholelithiasis
Presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
Retinitis
Inflammation of the retina.
Bland diet
Diet with foods mild in flavor and easy to digest.
Nasogastric tube
Feeding tube that goes through the nose then the pharynx and into the stomach
Lavage
Washing out of the stomach through a nasogastric tube.
1000-5000 liters
Amount of urine a healthy adult excretes
Urinary incontinence
Inability to control urination
Dysuria
Bad, painful urination
Septal defect
Abnormal, usually congenital defect in the wall separating the two chambers of the heart
Purkinje fibers
Fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
Angina pectoris
Pain or tightness in the chest which radiates to the left arm, jaw or neck caused by the lack of blood supply to the heart
Angina
Severe constricting pain
Myocardial infarction
Obstruction of coronary artery causing death of an area of the myocardium due to blockage of blood and oxygen supply is called,
Heart
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
Right
Deoxygenated blood enter the ______ atrium of the heart
Right ventricle
When the right atrium contracts it forces blood thru the tricuspid vavle into the
Pulmonary artery
Carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary artery
Right ventricle pumps the used blood to the lungs by way of the
Blepharitis
Inflammation of the eyelids.
Stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth.
Rickets
Caused by Vitamin D deficiency
Scurvy
Caused by Vitamin C deficiency
Beriberi
Caused by Vitamin B deficiency or Thiamine
Meniscus
Concave level of fluid in a tube or cylinder, concave curvature
Arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture of a joint for removal of fluid
Abduction
Moving away from the midline
Adduction
Moving toward the midline
Supination
Lying on back w/ palms up
Purkinje Fibers
Responsible for contracting the ventricles of the heart
SA node
Heart's natural pacemaker
Paraplegia
Paralysis from the waist down
Quadriplegia
Paralysis in all four extremities
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum
Lordiosis
Abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine pushes abdomen forward; swayback
Kyphosis
Exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine
Hypoglycemic
Low blood sugar level
Spine Break Down
Cervical vertebrae: 7
Thoracic vertebrae: 12
Lumbar vertebrae: 5
Rhinorrhea
Runny nose
Urinary sytem
Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder and one urethra
Kidneys
Produce urine and help regulate body fluids
Ureters
Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
Urinary bladder
Serves as a reservoir for urine
Urinary bladder
Can hold up to 300-500 ml of urine at one time
Spleen
located behind the stomach, filters blood by removing damaged red blood cells from the blood stream, takes up and destroys bacteria and other invaders of the body
Tonsils
Filters bacteria and aids in the formation of WBCs
Tonsillectomy
Surgical removal of the tonsils
Erythrocytes
A red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which functions in transporting oxygen in the circulatory system.
4 months
How long RBCs live for
WBCs
Live only for a couple of days
Thrombocytes
Aid in the coagulation of blood
Neutrophils
Protect against infection, aid in phagocytosis
Lymphocytes
Provide immune capacity
B cell
Identifies foreign antigens, differentiates into antibody producing plasma cells
T cell
cells in the thymus that regulate the action of the immune system
Monocytes
First line of defense in the inflammatory process; phagocytosis
Eosinophils
Destroy parasitic organisms; key role in allergic reactions
Basophils
Key role in releasing histamines
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
Antigens
Bad, invading cells
Tuberculosis
Can be transmitted via droplets; infectious disease
Prosthesis
Artificial body part
Bursitis
Inflammation of the bursa
Syphilis
Chronic venereal disease with lesions that can affect many organs
Puerperal sepsis
Severe infection of the genital tract during postpartum period; caused due to an abortion complication; childbed fever
Long bones
Radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula
Short bones
Carpals and tarsals
Irregular bone
Vertebrae
Flat bones
Pelvis and scapula
Sesamoid
Patella/knee cap
Ball in socket joints
Shoulder and hip
Hinge joint
Elbow and knee
Pivot joint
Atlas/asix bones, top of the neck
Saddle joint
Thumb joint
Condyloid joint
Wrist
Gliding joint
Intercarpal joints
Skin
Largest organ of the body
Ligaments
Attach bone to bone
Tendons
Attach muscle to bone
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine
Ethics
Right and wrong conduct
Negligence
Most common type of medical tort liability
Defendant
Person being sued
Abandonment
Withdrawal of the physician from the case of a patient w/out reasonable notice to patient
Assault
Unlawful threat or attempt to do bodily harm to another
Reasonable care
actions by a healthcare worker that are considered reasonable as compared to healthcare workers in the same area (field)
Malpractice
Negligence by a professional person
Crime
An act that violates criminal law
Breach
Breaking of a law, promise or duty
Empathy
Ability to see things from another person's point of view
Statute of limitations
Time established for filing law suits
Subpoena
Writ that commands a witness to appear at a trial or proceeding to give testimony
Tort
Wrong committed against another person or their property
False imprisonment
Holding or detaining a person against their will
Invasion of privacy
Violating a person's right not to have his or her name, photo, or private affairs exposed or made public without giving consent
Felony
Major crime for which greater punishment is imposed other than a misdemeanor
Plaintiff
One who institutes a lawsuit
Will
Legal statement of how a person's property is to be distributed after death
Privileged communication
Information given by a patient to medical personnel which can't be disclosed w/out consent of person who gave it
Law
Rule of conduct made by a government body
Negligence
Failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances
Consent
Permission granted by a person voluntarily and in their right mind
Defamation
Injuring the name and reputation of another person by making false statements to a thirt person
Contract
Agreement between two or more parties for the doing or not doing of a definite thing
Incompetence
Lack of physical or mental fitness
Judgment
Final decision of the court in an action or lawsuit
Respondeat superior
Latin for "Responsiblity of the employer to respond for the actions of the employee"
Non compos mentis
Latin for "Not of a sound mind"
Emancipated minor
Minor who is no longer under the care, custody or supervision of a parent or guardian
Medical grievance committee
An impartial panel established to listen to and investigate a patient's complaints about medical care or excessive fees
Res Gestae
Latin for "Things done; deeds"
Deposition
Testimony of a witness under oath and written down before trial for possible use when case goes to trial
Civil law
Statute that enforces private rights and liabilities differentiated from criminal law
Breach of duty
Violation or omission of a legal or moral duty
Battery
Deliberate physical attack upon a person
Qui facit per alium facit per se
Latin for "He who acts for/through another acts for himself"
Bioethics
The study of moral issues, questions, and problems arising in the practice of medicine and in biomedical research.
Expert testimony
Statement given concerning some scientific, technical or professional matter by an expert
Contributory negligence
Patient's failure to act prudently and reasonably or doing that which a reasonable person would not do under similar circumstances
Assumption of risk
Consent to treatment based on full understanding of all possible risks of unpreventable results of that treatment.
Medical etiquette
Conduct, courtesy, and manners customarily used in a medical office by medical professions
Fraud
Deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain
Suspension
To interrupt or discontinue a lawsuit temporarily with the intention to resume at a later date or to ask for a continuance
Res judicata
Latin for "Things decided"
Proximate cause
That which in natural and continuous sequence, unbroken by any new independent cause, produce an event, and without which the injury would not have occurred
Res ipsa loquitor
Latin for "the thing speaks for itself"; Common experience permits a reasonable inference from the occurrence itself; substitutes for causation; doesn't decide ultimate negligence, but allows it
Breach of contract
Failure to achieve an agreed upon result
Narcotic license
Physician must have this to dispense, prescribe or adminster a controlled substance
Peer review
Medical research is often published in medical journals that are evaluated by members of the medical community through a process known as
Admissions review
Under the Peer Review Improvement Acts of 1982, Peer Review Organizations are responsible for the review of the appropriateness and necessity of putting a patient in the hospital by a process known as
Forgery
Fraudulent signature
Bioethics
Use of fetal tissue transplantation for research might involve a decision based upon_________
Unethical
To deny treatment to HIV infected patients is known as
Gunshot wound
Physician does need patient's permission in writing to reveal confidential information if injury is a
HIPAA
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care information and providing the patient with control over how this information is used and distributed
American Medical Association
AMA stand for
Code of Ethics
The statement "a physician shall respect the law" is part of the AMA
Breach of confidentiality
Failure to keep privileged medical information private
Rhinitis
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa
Pertussis
Another name for whooping cough
Vaginitis
Inflammation of the mucus lining of the vagina
Gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums
Gastric
Lesions of the mucous membrane of the stomach are called ______ ulcers
Cirrhosis
Serious chronic disease of the liver
Colitis
Chronic inflammation of the colon
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix
Hemorrhoids
Dilated veins that occur in the rectum
Database management
System whereby large quantities of data can be accessed, searched, sorted and arranged very rapidly by computer
Hardware
Computer monitor, hard drive and printer
Software
Term for the technology that tells a computer what to do
Delete
Computer key "DEL" command means
Computer's directional arrow keys
Move the cursor, right, left, up and down
User friendly
Refers to how easy the computer system is to operate
Coding
Process of changing words into numbers so that computers can be used in processing insurance claims
Left hand margin
A business letter written in full block style will have all lines at the
Backup
Making a duplicate file to protect computer information from being lost is called making a
Colon
When writing a business letter, the salutation of a letter should be followed by which punctuation mark
Third
A newsletter that weighs less than one pound would be considered _______ class mail
Fax machine
What office equipment is designed to receive and send printed documents via a telephone line
First
Business or handwritten mail that weighs less than 11 ounces is known as ______ class mail
Fourth
Parcel post or _____ class mail is used for bound printed matter, film and sound recordings
Third
An incoming call should be answered by the _____ ring
Smile
Prior to answering an incoming call, the medical assistant should
Thirds face up
A letter should be folded in _____ using a #10 envelope
Grammar
Is the study of words and their relationship to other words in a sentence
Take all complaints seriously and take thorough notes
When handling a patient complaint the medical assistant should
Show respect for the culture
When working with patients from a culture different than your own, one should
Non-verbal communication
Body language, posture, space and distance are all examples of
Ethics
Right and wrong conduct
Negligence
The most common type of medical tort liability
Defendant
Person being sued
Abandonment
Withdrawal of a physician from the care of a patient w/out a reasonable notice such as discharge from the case by a patient is called
Assault
Unlawful threat or attempt to do bodily injury to another
Reasonable care
Healthworker is protected by law if it can be determined that he or she acted reasonable as compared with fellow coworkers
Malpractice
Negligence by a professional person
Crime
An act that violates criminal law
Exposure control plan
Every medical facility is required by OSHA to have this
Exposure control plan
This shall be made available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director of OSHA upon request for examination and copying
Human immunodeficiency virus
H.I.V. stands for
Contaminated sharps
Contaminated objects that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes and exposed ends of dental wires are also known as
Occupational exposure
Reasonable anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
Source individual
Any individual, living or dead, whose blood, or other potentially infectious materials may be a source of occupational exposure to the employee
Sterilize
To use a physical chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life including highly resistant bacterial endospores
Blood
Is the single most important source of HIV and HBV in the workplace
0.50%
The risk of infection with HIV following one needle stick exposure to blood from a patient know to be infected with HIV is approximately
Microbiological agents
General infection control procedures are designed to prevent transmission of a wide range of _____ and to provide a wide margin of safety in the varied situations encountered in the health-care environment
Human exposure
Contact with blood, or other body fluids to which universal precautions apply through percutaneous inoculation, or contact with an open wound, non-intact skin, or mucous membrane during the performance of normal duties
Hepatitis B
All workers whose jobs involved participation in tasks, or activities with exposure to blood, or other body fluids to which universal precautions apply, should be vaccinated with this vaccine
Serologic
This test should be made available by the employer to all workers who maybe concerned they have been infected with HIV through an occupational exposure
Remote
Studies suggest that the potential for salivary transmission of HIV is
Puncture-resistant
After they are used, disposable syringes and needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items should be placed in these containers for disposal
Brush and dust pan
Broken glassware which may be contaminated shall not be picked up directly with the hands, but by mechanical means such as a
Bagged or containerized at the location
Contaminated laundry shall be _____ where it was soiled
EPA
All spills of blood-contaminated fluids should be promptly cleaned up using _____ approved germicide
1:10
Proper ratio for household bleach and water
Orange-red
In cases of blood contamination, shoe coverings and gloves should be disposed of in these colored biohazard plastic bags
2-60 seconds
How quickly will an electronic thermometer measure body temperature
Infants
This age bracket has the fastest heartbeat
Ectopic
This is a pregnancy outside of the uterus
Radial pulse
Most common site for pulse rate
60-100
Normal adult pulse rate
Wrist
Radial pulse is located in the
Axillary
Least reliable measurement of body temperature
Rectal
Most reliable measurement of body temperature
14-20
Normal adult respiration rate
Tachypnea
Respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths per minute
Hypertension
Persistent increased systolic and diastolic pressures are indicative of
Stethoscope and sphygmomanometer
To measure blood pressure, the medical assistant needs
Systolic
Point where the first sound is heard when taking the patient's blood pressure
Diastolic
Point where the last sound is heard when taking the patient's blood pressure
Physician
Any abnormal vital signs/measurements must be immediately reported to the
Vital signs
Patient's temperature, respirations and pulse are known as
Security thermometer
Used to take an infant's rectal temperature
Hot water
Never clean a glass thermometer with
Shallow respiration
When a patient is breathing with only the upper part of the lungs
Skin puncture
Blood lancet is used for the collection of blood specimens by
2.4 mm
Standard point in length of the lancet to be used when collecting blood from a newborn's heel
Patient identification
The most important step in performing a venipuncture
Smaller
To determine the size of the needle, remember that the higher the gauge numbers the _____ the needle
Centrifuge
Separates the cellular and liquid portions of the blood
Multiple use
Rubber sleeves on an evacuated tube system makes it possible for
10
A patient should not eat, drink coffee/alcohol or smoke how many hours before a glucose tolerance test
Holder
During a venipuncture, to secure the needle during insertion into the stopper, you need a
21-22
Which needle gauge is commonly used for a venipuncture
3-4 inches
The tourniquet should be wrapped around the arm about ______ from where the venipuncture will be
Make a fist
During a venipuncture, the patient's veins will be more prominent if they
Index
This finger is used when palpating for a vein
Arteries
Arterioles are the smallest type of
1 minute
The maximum time a tourniquet should be tied on the upper arm while performing a venipuncture
Circular motion and outward
The venipuncture site should be cleansed in a
Alcohol wipe/cotton ball
Venipuncture site should be cleansed with an
Opposite each other
When centrifuging, make sure equal weights are
Small
In the positioning of the electrodes, if the electrodes are placed too close together, the amplitude (height) will be
0.20 sec
The large squares on the ECG paper are equal to
Never
A "V wave" will _____ be seen in a normal EKG
Sensitivity switch
This switch controls the gain or amplitude (height) on the EKG
Skin preparation
On an EKG, when preparing for lead placement, one should first care for
Defibrillation
Conversion of a dysrhythmia to a normal rhythm by applying electric shock to the chest
Clean, smooth and dry
The electrode site should be
Time
An ECG tracing measures the amount of voltage and the _____ it takes for the voltage to travel throughout the heart
Adhesive area
In the application of the electrodes, secure the electrode by rubbing your finger around the
Absolutely regular
When there is no variation of R-R intervals it is called
Direction/Shape
Ventricular depolarization produces an electrical force or vector with 2 components: 1) magnitude/force and 2) _______
Q wave
A downward or negative wave of an ECG following the P wave is the
Uniform (EKG)
A premature ventricular contraction (PVC) where the QRS have the same configuration each time they appear
V1 lead
Fourth intercostal space right sterna border
P wave
Duration of this wave is not greater than 0.11 sec and height deflection is small, not more than 3mm
Life-threatening
When premature ventricular contractions (PVC's) fall on the T wave, occur in pairs, runs of 3 or more, or are multiform in nature these conditions are called
Negative
When a vector travels away from the positive electrode, this is the deflection result
Blood
Suffix "emia" means
Dialate
Expanding or opening wider
UA
Abbreviation for "urinalysis"
Tissues
Group of cells with the same function
Cell
Basic unit of body structure
hypo
Abbreviation for "below or low"
Menarche
The time when menstruation begins
Menopause
The time when menstruation stops
G.I.
Abbreviation for "gastrointestinal"
Reflex
An involuntary movement
Paraplegia
Paralysis from the waist down
Quadriplegia
Paralysis from the neck down
PO
Abbreviation for "by mouth"
DSG
Abbreviation for "dressing"
Hemiplegia
Paralysis on one side of the body
Rotation
Circular movement around a central point
Supination
Turning the palm forward
Atrophy
Decrease in size or a wasting
Extension
Straightening of a body part
PPBS
Abbreviation for postprandial blood sugar
Narcotics
License a physician must have to dispense, prescribe or administer a controlled substance
June 30th
Physicians with a narcotics license are required to register with the DEA on this date each year
DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency)
Physicians with a narcotics license are required to register on June 30th each year with the
Diuretic
A drug that causes an increase in urination
Antitussive
A drug used to relieve a cough
Antacid
Drug used to neutralize acid
Appetite suppressor
Drug used to control appetite
Anticoagulant
Drug used to prevent blood from clotting
Antipyretic
Drug used to control temperature
Tranquilizer
Drug used to reduce anxiety
Vasodilator
Drug that causes dilation of blood vessels
Decongestant
Drug that decreases congestion
Mydriatic
Drug that causes the pupils of the eye to dilate
Expiration date
Date on a bottle of medication that provides a "use until" date
Emulsion
Liquid preparation which mixes fine droplets of an oil in water, such as castor oil
Nitroglycerine
Treatment of "angina pectoris"
Hydrocortisone
Drug used to suppress inflammation
Inflammation
Hydrocortisone suppresses
Schedule I drugs
Substances that have no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse
Schedule IV drugs
Minor tranquilizers and hypnotics that have a lesser potential for abuse
Transdermal
Small adhesive patch/disc used for administration of drugs
Buccal
Placing medication between the gum and cheek
Liters per minute
s percentage of oxygen concentration and its rate of delivery is written as
Blood or body fluids
It is recommended that protective masks, eye wear and face shields be worn by laboratory tehnicians or housekeeping personnel when cleaning up
Infectious
Blood from all individuals should be considered
Universal precautions
Organization to promote infection control
Seven
Vaccinations against HBV infection protect against HBV following the vaccine for this many years or more
Hand hygiene
First line of defense in preventing disease
Orange-red
Biohazard labels must be colored
OSHA
What federal agency requires the use of Sharps containers
Living cells
Viruses can reproduce only in
Sterilization
The process of killing all microorganisms in a certain area
Autoclave
Sterilizes or completely destroys microorganisms by combining heat with steam under pressure
Microorganisms
These grow best in a dark and warm environment
Infection
A disease state that results from the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the body
Medical asepsis
Practices to achieve asepsis
Contamination
Process by which an object or area becomes unclean
10 minutes
Hands should be washed for approximately
Carrier
Healthcare worker that unconsciously transports harmful bacteria but is not ill
Cultures
Groups or clusters of bacteria taken for laboratory study
Stetorous respiration
Patient makes abnormal noises like snoring sounds when breathing
Stethoscope
When listening to the brachial pulse, the medical assistant will use a
Aneroid
Main type of sphygmomanometer used in a clinical setting
Respiration
Process of inhaling and exhaling
Shallow respiration
When the depth of breathing changes and the rate of the rise and fall of the chest is not steady
Body temperature
Balance between the heat produced and the heat lost
Catheter
Rubber or plastic tube used to drain or inject fluid thru a body opening
Catheterization
Process of inserting a catheter
Distilled water
The autoclave water reservoir is filled with
Lithotomy position
Patient positioned on back with feet in stirrups
Auscultation
A stethoscope is used to listen to body sounds by
Palpation
When a physician feels with fingers or hands to determine physical characteristics of tissues or organs
Axilliary
Body temperature measured under the patient's arm
Percussion
Listening to sounds produced while tapping the patient with fingers
Opthalmoscope
Instrument used to examine the eyes
Apical
Pulse method used for infants and young children
Third
Most serious degree of burn
Closed
When in use, the centrifuge lid should be kept
Red top tube
Evacuated tube used for collection of electrolytes
Lavender top tube
Evacuated tube used for collecting blood for a hematocrit test
Red top tube
Evacuated tube used for collecting blood for a cholesterol test
Refrigerator
When collecting a 24-hour urine specimen, how do you store it
Plasma
What goes to the top of the tube when anticoagulated blood is centrifuged
Red blood cells
What goes to the bottom of the tube when anticoagulated blood is centrifuged
Lavender top tube
Evacuated tube used for a Complete Blood Count (CBC)
PT/PTT
Lab test used to monitor anticoagulation therapy
P wave
Represents atrial depolarization
0.12
A QRS measurement of less than ______ seconds indicates a supraventricular pacemaker
Intervals
Area between waves is referred to as
Agonal
A dying heart, a terminal lethal dysrhythmia
Arrhythmia
When the heart rhythm is abnormal it is referred to as
Ventricular fibrillation
Rapid, irregular succession of chaotic bizarre waves; wide, irregular oscillation of the baseline