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Chapters 6-8 Test Biology
Terms in this set (110)
Glucose comes from
In cellular respiration ______ is an input.
In cellular respiration ______________ is an output.
During ______________ plants convert the energy of sunlight to the chemical energy of sugars and other organic materials.
An _________ makes its own organic matter from materials that are inorganic.
4) Nucleic Acids
some organic materials
1) Carbon dioxide from the air
2) Water/minerals from the soil
some inorganic materials
A ___________ is an organism that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
____________ is another word for autotrophs.
_____________ is another word for heterotrophs.
In photosynthesis _________________________ are energy inputs.
carbon dioxide and water
In photosynthesis ___________________ are energy outputs.
glucose and oxygen
_______ is an example of a biofuel, which is added to most gasoline in the US
Cellular respiration is an ______ process.
Cellular respiration is the harvesting of chemical energy from _______ fuel molecules.
There are _ carbon atoms in a glucose molecules.
Glucose and oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water PLUS about __ ATP molecules.
Glycosis splits a molecule of glucose into two molecules of
Glycosis occurs in the _________ of the cell.
The citric acid cycle is also called the _____ cycle.
The citric acid cycle breaks down glucose into _________________ which is released as a waste product.
C02, carbon dioxide
The citric acid cycle occurs in the ____________ of the cell.
The common name for acetic acid is
components of food
3) Amino acids
serve as direct inputs for glucosis
1) Acetyl CoA
2) Amino acids
serve as direct inputs to the citric acid cycle
The _________________ serves as a direct input to the electron transport chain.
citric acid cycle
The ________________________ produces the most ATP.
electron transport chain
___ is essential for movement.
Insulin is important because
it regulates glucose levels
After functioning anaerobically for about __ seconds, muscle cells begin to generate ATP by the process of fermentation.
The recycling of ____ cannot occur under anaerobic conditions because there is no oxygen to accept the electrons.
Under anaerobic conditions ____ disposes of electrons by adding them to the pyruvic acid produced by glycosis.
The addition of electrons to pyruvic acid produces a waste product called ______ acid.
Lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid by the
Current research indicates that increased levels of other _____ probably cause muscle fatigue.
The process of science it dynamic and subject to constant __________ as new evidence is discovered.
All scientific hypothesis may become ________ and that changing conclusions in light of new evidence is necessary for the advancement of science.
1) Soy sauce
3) Sour cream
foods produced by fermentation
The sharp flavor of foods is mainly due to
basal metabolic rate
1) Body size
2) Body composition
factors that affect BMR
FMR refers to
fetal alcohol syndrome
1) Head and facial irregularities
2) Heart defects
3) Mental retardation
4) Behavioral problems
symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FMR)
Inside leaf cells, organelles called ___________ use light energy to rearrange the atoms of these ingredients to produce sugars - most importantly glucose
_________________ are carbon compounds made by living organisms.
__________________ are naturally occurring compounds not made by living organisms.
___________ is the remnants of restaurant deep fryers.
3) Sugar beets
4) Other food crops
some sources used to make bioethanol
Although bioethanol does reduce carbon emissions and is a renewable resource, its production raises the prices of ____ crops.
Photosynthesis is a process whereby _______________________________ transform light energy into chemical energy.
plants, algae, and certain bacteria
A ______________ is an organism that carries out photosynthesis.
1) Clothes (cotton)
2) Housing (wood)
some things we get from phototrophs
Photosynthesis occurs within _______________ organelles called chloroplast.
The _____ color of plants comes from chlorophyll.
Carbon dioxide enters a leaf and oxygen exits a leaf through tiny pores called
______ is the fluid within the chloroplast.
The thylakoids are concentrated in stacks called
The ______ cycle uses the products of the light reactions to power the production of sugar from carbon dioxide.
_________ wavelengths have the highest energy.
____________ wavelengths have the lowest energy.
We see the color green in leaves because
it is not used and is being reflected
_____________ is a pigment that participates directly in light reactions.
Bets-carotene is the color
Lycopene is the color
A ______ is a fixed quantity of light energy.
The mechanism of ATP production during the light reactions is very similar to the mechanism that occurs in
The Calvin Cycle is the actual _____ manufacturing process.
Glyceraldhyde is an energy-rich sugar molecule which is often abbreviated as
1) Carbon dioxide
important to the Calvin cycle
Somatic cells reproduce by
Sex cells reproduce by
Each cell undergoing mitosis divides into two complete new cells that are usually __________ to the cell from which they originated.
Meiosis produces cells that have a haploid number of
Human gametes normally have _____ chromosomes.
Cells spend most of their lifetime in
Cell division is a crucial process in the _______________________ of multi-cellular organisms.
growth and development
"Mitosis" is the biological term for the division of the
nucleus and its content
Daughter cells must be exactly like the parent cells in order to
duplicate its chromosomes
In order to duplicate chromosomes, the chromosomes must be ___________ into two identical sets.
In ________ reproduction, the offspring inherit all of their chromosomes from a single parent.
In ______ reproduction, the offspring receives half of the genetic information from one parent and half from the other.
Chromosomes are made out of
The DNA in just one human cell would be _ feet long if it were stretched out.
________ are small protein molecules associated with DNA and important in DNA packing in the eukaryotic chromosome.
A cell must compact its DNA before
it can move to a new cell
Mature muscle cells _____ divide.
The division of the cytoplasm into two cells is called
In animal cells, the cytokinesis process is known as
In plant cells, a __________ forms to separate the cell into two daughter cells.
When cells begin to divide excessively they grow into ______ and can invade other tissues of the body.
A ______ tumor remains at its origin.
A _________ tumor can spread.
The spread of cancer beyond the original site is called
2) Radiation Therapy
three common treatments for cancer
1) Not smoking
2) Adequate exercise
3) Avoiding overexposure to the sun
4) Eating a high-fiber, low fat diet
some things people can do to reduce the risk of cancer
___________________ produces variation among the offspring.
A typical body cell is called a ________ cell.
A _________ is a display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size, and centromere position
In mammals, males have one _ chromosome and one _ chromosome.
Females have two _ chromosomes.
The remaining chromosomes (found in both male and females) are called
A ________ cell is a pair.
A _______ cell is a single.
There are __________ different combinations from the union of a human egg and sperm that exist.
______________ is an accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fails to separate.
Nondisjunction can occur during
meiosis I or II
Down syndrome is caused by
3 number 21 chromosomes
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