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Ruminant, Camelid, Swine Anesthesia (L&J)
Terms in this set (28)
Per AMDUCA (Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act), when is extra-label drug use allowed?
ELDU is permitted when:
-Animal health is threatened OR
-Death may result if a condition is untreated
(However, the prescribing vet is responsible for advising owners how to insure that no residual drug reaches processors/ consumers)
Why is bioavailability and distribution of orally administered drugs in ruminants difficult to predict?
The pH difference b/w saliva (alkaline), plasma (neutral), and ruminal contents (acidic) is constantly changing >> Making drug ionization differences
Why can venipuncture and catheterization can be difficult in camelids?
-Thick coats & skin
-No jugular furrow
-Jugular veins lie deep to muscles and aren't always visible when occluded
-Jugulars run near carotid, vagosympathetic trunk, and esophagus (left side)
What is the name of the vein we catheterize in pig ears?
Central dorsal auricular vein OR
Lateral auricular veins
What are potential triggers for MH in pigs?
-Stress (transportation, unfamiliar hospital)
-Halogenated inhalant anesthetics
Where do we inject IM in pigs?
At the cervical or thoracic areas of the trapezius muscle
(need at least a 2 inch long needle to ensure drug injection into muscle tissue, or else inconsistent results when sometimes go SQ)
T or F: Normal, awake cattle breathe with smaller tidal volume and faster RR than do horses
TRUE: Normal, awake cattle breathe with smaller tidal volume and faster RR than do horses
Cattle tend to have greater differences between alveolar and arterial O2 partial pressure (PAO2 -PaO2 ) than horses, particularly if placed in dorsal recumbency. Why?
-Smaller, completely separated bovine lung lobes
-Lower work of breathing d/t a greater max Δ in pleural pressure and the non‐elastic work of breathing + lower dynamic lung compliance
-Dec breathing efficiency d/t a diaphragm that is flatter and more vertical in conformation
-A large expandable stomach which sits just caudal to the diaphragm and when filled to its max occupies 3/4 of the abdominal cavity
-A tendency to greater alveolar ventilation and higher VO2
What is the volume of the rumen of adult cattle?
115 - 150L
Preanesthetic fasting may reduce the degree of fermentation that occurs in rumen, but fermentation continues during anesthesia and gas accumulates in the rumen due to prohibition of eructation. What does this result in?
Inc intragastric pressure >> Dec lung compliance, tidal volume, and minute ventilation >> Inc degree of ventilation/perfusion mismatch and the subsequent dvpt of hypoventilation and hypoxemia
In ruminants, compression of the great vessels such as the vena cava by the wt of abdominal viscera while in lateral or dorsal recumbency can result in what?
Why are anesthetized ruminants prone to dvpt of ruminal tympany?
Ruminal fermentation continues even in anesthetized animals, BUT sedatives / anesthetics / some body positions inhibit GI motility and prevent eructation
Regurgitation tends to occur more frequently when animals are in which lateral recumbency?
LEFT lateral >>> Right lateral
Aspiration pneumonia is often characterized by what? (6)
-Reflex airway closure, Bronchospasm
-Pulm edema and hemorrhage
-Dyspnea, hypoxemia, and cyanosis
Why does regurgitation occurs during anesthesia in ruminants?
-Active: Light plane of anesthesia
-Passive: Deep plane of anesthesia >> Relaxation of esophageal mm and transluminal pressure gradients
The prognosis following aspiration depends on what 2 factors?
The amount and the pH of the ruminal materials
(eg in pigs with stomach contents at pH 1.5-2.5 the acidity is damaging to lungs VS in ruminants or camelids rumen contents 5.5-6.5 or C1 contents 6.4-7.0 the amt of bacteria and solid material aspirated matters more)
Ruminants normally salivate profusely during anesthesia, and antimuscarinics were historically used as premed to try to prevent salivation. Why is this practice no longer routine?
Antimuscarinincs dec the H2O content of saliva >> Makes it more viscous >> Inc potential for obstruction, esp with small ETT (such as w/ pigs and kids)
Why is intubation in small ruminants and camelids is more difficult when compared to carnivores?
-Their jaws cannot be opened as widely
-Their intermandibular space is narrow
-The laryngeal opening is invisible behind the thick base of the tongue
-The elongated soft palate may be either ventral or dorsal to the epiglottis in SA camelids
Of all domestic species, endotracheal intubation has proven to be most difficult in pigs. Why?
-Mouth cannot be widely opened
-Epiglottis often trapped behind soft palate
-Prominent dorsal protrusion of base of the tongue obstructs direct visual of larynx
-Larynx slopes downward, creating acute angle to the tracheal opening (ventral floor fornix)
-Vomiting can occur if intubation attempted under light planes of anesthesia, esp w/o fasting
Hypothermia can be a significant problem in small ruminants, particularly in pediatric ones, and pigs. This can result in what?
Malignant hyperthermia, also referred to as 'porcine stress syndrome,' is a genetic disorder with mutation of which gene? Why is it impt?
-Ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1)
-Impt for fx of Ca channels in skeletal mm
-Mutation allows for massive Ca release >> Generalized mm contraction
Which 3 breeds of pigs are best known for MH?
What are the clinical signs of MH? (11)
Sudden dramatic inc in temp + ETCO2 followed by:
-MM fasciculation, mm rigidity, myoglobinuria
-Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Arrhythmias
-Metabolic acidosis, Renal failure
How do you treat MH?
-Ice packs, Alcohol baths
To achieve equipotent sedation, cattle need what sort of dose of xylazine compared to that of horses?
1/10th the horse dose is needed in cattle
What is the concern with giving xylazine to pregnant ruminants?
In the final trimester >> Altered uterine motility >> Premature parturition + Retention of fetal membranes + Dec uterine BF
During recovery, displacement of the soft palate can occur in camelids, causing what to happen?
What should you do to deal with this occurrence?
-Displacement of soft palate dorsal to epiglottis >> Hinders air flow into larynx >> Upper airway obstruction + Arrest (camelids are obligate nasal breathers)
-Encourage animal to swallow, or if no swallow reflex then need to reintubate until swallowing
Why can prolonged duration of dorsal recumbency in camelids result in upper airway obstruction? How can you try to prevent this occurrence?
-Dorsal recumbency >> Severe nasal edema
-Prvn: Keep nose high; phenylephrine nose spray
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