AG Economics Chad Henry 2021 2nd test study review

estimates the degree of consumer responsiveness to changes in price and income
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Terms in this set (34)
-any business can enter or leave sector without encountering serious barriers for entry(patents, licensing)
-there must be a large number of sellers of product, no single seller has influence on price, PRICE TAKER
--perfect information must exist for all participants regarding prices, quantities, qualities, sources of supply, and so on
As successive units of a variable input are added to a production process with the other inputs held constant, the marginal physical product (MPP) eventually declines"Stage of production does a producer want to produce atFIXED COST—cost do not vary with production Example: taxes, notes payable, tractor note VARIABLE COST—cost that vary with production Example: labor, electricity, feed, fertilizerfix cost vs variable costMARGINAL COST--is change in business's total costs per unit of change in outputmarginal costMarginal revanuMaximize profit underWhat do all business have incommonMeasure PROFIT and assess financial condition. Provide data for business analysis. Assist in obtaining loans.3 purposes of record keepingPRODUCTION ACTIVITIES—activities related to the production of crops and livestock; revenue and expenses INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES—activities related to purchase, depreciation, and sale of long-lived assets FINANCING ACTIVITIES—all transactions related to borrowing money and paying interest and principal on debtKnow accounting termsDEPRECIATION—refers to the reduction in value of assets due to their consumption or wear-out during business operations over timeDepreciationCALENDAR-YEAR—all transactions occurring between Jan. 1 - Dec. 31 FISCAL-YEAR—uses 12 month period that may begin on any dateDifferent calendar year - Fiscal yearAccounting method, with only few exceptions, no transaction is recorded unless cash is spent or received. Accrual accounting records as revenue the value of all products produced and all services provided during a yearDifferent in cash accounting and Accrual accounting.INCOME STATEMENT—financial statement that reports the revenue and expenses incurred by the firm during an accounting period Get a Net Profit or Loss. BALANCE SHEET—financial statement reporting the value of a business at a point in time; list of ASSETS and LIABILITIES that concludes with an estimate of NET WORTH or OWNER EQUITY by taking the difference between value of assets and liabilities. CASH FLOW STATEMENT—financial statement that reports the sources and uses of cash by the firm during an accounting period3 financial statements,EXPLICIT COST—expense where a cash payment to others is required Example: cost of fuel, fertilizer, seed IMPLICIT COST—expense that doesn't involve the direct payment of money Example: depreciation, opportunity costEXPLICIT COST & IMPLICIT COSTGROSS RATIO—used to assess economic efficiency of a business, ratio of total expenses to total revenue (expenses/revenue) Example: if business expenses are $75,000 & revenue is $125,000? What is Gross Ratio?Gross ratioratio used measure of profitability for the return on the owner's share of capital invested (net income/equity appearing on balance sheet)Rate of Return on equitya financial report summarizing the assets, liabilities, and equity of a business at a point in timeOn balance sheetLIQUIDITY—ability of a business to convert its assets to cash quickly, without loss in value of business; current assets greater than liabilities a business is said to be liquid Example: farm assets are $100,000 & liabilities are $75,000; the Current Ratio is?LiquiditySolvency indicates the ability of a business to repay its total liabilities if business were to dissolveSolvencyPRODUCT COMPETITION—rivalry between alternative or substitute products -Beef and porkproduct competitionFIRM COMPETITION—rivalry between sellers of similar products -McDonalds and Burger KingFirm competitionFUNCTIONAL COMPEITION—rivalry between firms to determine who will perform a particular marketing function -Farmer's Market & Grocery StoreFunctional competitionIdentical to those of perfect competition with 1 difference—products sold are no longer homogeneousmonoplistic competitionOLIGOPOLY—conditions same as those of monopolistic competition with 1 major exception: THERE ARE ONLY A FEW SELLERS, each of which is large enough to have an influence on market volume and priceOligopolyMONOPOLY—complete opposite of perfect competition, only 1 seller in marketMonopoly