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A&P 2 Lab Practical 2 IWU
Terms in this set (214)
Define VO2 max (in your own words)
the maximum amount of oxygen consumption that your body can utilize during an incremental exercise
what is VO2max measured in?
milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute of oxygen consumed
how to calculate Cardiac Output (Q)
Stroke Volume (sv) x Heart Rate
which two processes are aerobic?
Electron Transport Chain and Citric Acid Cycle
Which process produces the least number of ATP
Splitting of Glucose
Which process is the most efficient in terms of energy production
Electron Transport Chain
Target Heart Rate equation
(220-age) x (percent training)
Activities that increase VO2max and Cardiac Efficiency over time
Running, Cycling, Swimming, Cross-Country Skiing, Hill/Stair Climbing
What methods are used to determine VO2 max
Astrand, Bruce Protocol, and estimation based off most recent mile time
what energy source is being oxidized at an RER of .70
metabolic equivalents; 3.5 ml/kg/min; a way of describing the intensity of an activity
what type exercise burns the greatest amounts of fats
low intensity exercise
what group has the highest VO2max
cross country skiers
Frequency, Intensity, Time/Type
define Stroke Volume (SV)
the volume of blood being pumped from the left ventricle during a heartbeat
who first suggested that energy came from either aerobic or anaerobic sources
Hill and Lupton
Air Force MD and Colonel, wrote "Aerobics"
3 Contributing Factors in Running Performance
Running Economy, Muscle Elasticity, Running Strength
The efficiency at which you run (run faster while using less energy)
a measure of how much energy your muscles will return
A strong muscle contracts with much more power and with more elasticity
training that involves a series of high intensity workouts interspersed with rest periods
training performed at a continuous intensity throughout w/o any rest periods
Define Cardiac Output (Q)
The volume of blood being pumped by the heart every minute
the process of training to become physically fit
training that breaks down glucose in the body w/o using oxygen
Electron Transport Chain
a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions
How many ATP can be produced from 1 glucose molecule in the entire respiratory cycle
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes releasing energy and pyruvic acid
Citric Acid Cycle
a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
define Absolute VO2 (VO2)
volume of oxygen consumed per minute
what is Absolute VO2 measured in
define Relative VO2 (VO2/kg)
volume of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight per minute
what is Relative VO2 measured in
volume of carbon dioxide produced (expired) per minute
Minute Ventilation = Respiratory Rate (RR) x Tidal Volume (Vt)
Respiratory Exchange Ratio; ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed
Tidal Volume; the volume of gas inspired or expired during each respiratory cycle
Fraction of expired O2; % of O2 in gas expired (breathed out)
Fraction of expired CO2 % of CO2 in gas expired (breathed out)
TM SPD (mi/hr)
TM ELV (% grade)
grade/elevation of treadmill
Reasons why Armstrong was so phenomenal
1. two time the lung capacity of a normal person (genetics)
2. heart is 1/3 times larger than a normal person; resting HR of 32 bpm and max HR of 200 bpm
3. accumulates less lactate and can remove is quicker
Who has the highest VO2max in history
Bjorn Daehlie (96 ml/kg/min)
what organs are in the alimentary canal?
How long is the alimentary canal?
Which organs are accessory digestive organs
what is the function of accessory organs
to produce a variety of secretions that help break down food
What are the 6 essential activities of the digestive tract
(3) Mechanical digestion
(4) Chemical digestion
(6) Defecation (reabsorption of H2O)
What is the name of the process involving digested end products passing into the blood stream
Epithelial Membrane, Areolar Connective Tissue, and Smooth Muscle
Secretion, Absorption, and Protection
Dense Connective Tissue with blood and lymphatic vessels, Elastic Fibers, and Nerve Fibers that supply the surrounding GI tract walls
nutrition and protection
Muscularis Externa Description
Inner Circular Layer, Out Longitudinal Layer, Smooth muscle cells, and Sphincters
Muscularis Externa Function
GI mobility, Mixing and Propelling food, Peristalisis, and Segmentation
Visceral Peritoneum, Areolar Connective Tissue, and Single layer of squamous epithelial cells
lubrication, free movement of canal in abdominal
Passageway behind the oral cavity extending from the soft palate to the epiglottis
Passageway extending from the epiglottis to the base of the larynx
the expanded portion of the stomach
the midportion of the stomach, inferior to the fundus
body of the stomach
the terminal part of the stomach
a mesentery that extends from the liver to attach to the lesser curvature of the stomach
a sac-like mesentery extending from the greater curvature of the stomach, and covers the abdominal contents in an apron-like fashion
part of the small intestine that extends from the pyloric sphincter
the second division of the small intestine that extends for about 8 feet
the terminal portion of the small intestine
a blind tubelike structure which hangs from the cecum and is a common site of infection
part of the colon that travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity
par of the colon that travel across the abdominal cavity
part of the colon that travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity
the s-shaped part of the colon
the terminal end of the anal canal that opens to the exterior of the body
the voluntary sphincter of the anus
external anal sphinctor
the involuntary sphincter of the anus
internal anal sphinctor
large glands anterior to the ear and ducting into the mouth over the second upper molar through the parotid duct
glands along the medical aspect of the mandibular body in the floor of the mouth
small glands located anteriorly in the floor of the mouth
the largest gland in the body
suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall
structure through which bile leaves the liver
common hepatic duct
structure through while bile enters the duodenum
structure which drains bile from the gallbladder
small green sac on the inferior surface of the liver that concentrates bile
the functional blood supply to the liver
drains blood from the liver
a triangular gland with an endocrine and exocrine function
duct which drains pancreatic juice from the pancreas
main pancreatic duct
structure in which the pancreatic duct fuses with the bile duct just as it enters the duodenum
part fo the large intestine following the sigmoid colon
Where does most absorption occur?
organ that acts as blood filter and processor
the concave medial region of the kidney
arteries that serve the kidney
veins that drain the kidney
structures which drains urine from the kidneys
sac which temporarily stores urine
a fibrous membrane which adheres directly to the kidney surface
the most superficial kidney region
a reddish-brown kidney region deep to the cortex
triangular or cone-shaped tissue masses within the medulla
the pointed end of each renal pyramid
inward extensions of cortical tissue between renal pyramids
a funnel-shaped tube continuous with the ureter leaving the hilus
larger extensions of the renal pelvis
smaller subdivisions of the renal pelvis which enclose the papillae
the anatomical units responsible for forming urine
a tuft of capillaries associated with a renal tubule
structure into which filtrate passes from the glomerular capsule
the enlarged end of the renal tubule
the first coiled region of the renal tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
the hairpin loop of the renal tubule
loop of Henle
coiled renal tubule region before it empties into a collecting duct
distal convoluted tubule
structures which receive urine from many nephrons
small artery which feeds the glomerulus
small artery which drains the glomerulus
blood vessels which surround the loops of Henle
what is the normal volume of urinary output in 24 hours
what is the normal color of urine
pale yellow to deep golden
what can cause urine to have an abnormal color?
foods, drugs, medication, dehydration, blood
what can cause urine to have an abnormal odor?
UTIs, food, and starvation/dehydration
what condition might fruity smelling urine indicate
what is the normal pH of urine
6 (slightly acidic)
what type of diet can causes urine to have a low pH
What indicates Pyuria; which suggests inflammation of urinary tract
Most commonly Albuminuria; indicates excessive exertion or protein intake, or damage to the glomerular membrane from trauma, toxins, or glomerulonephritis
What indicates Glycosuria; can indicate excessive carbohydrate intake or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
What indicates Ketonuria; the presence of intermediate products of fat metabolism; suggests abnormal metabolic processes including starvation or diabetes mellitus
What indicates Bilirubinuria; the appearance of bilirubin in the urine; suggests a live pathology, but is also the test which most often gives false positives
What indicates Hematuria; possible causes include kidney stones, infection, or trauma; could also be caused by contamination in menstruating females
What indicates Hemoglobinuria; due to hemolysis of red blood cells, and suggests various pathologies including hemolytic anemia, burns, or renal disease
What do Leukocytes indicate?
What do Proteins indicate?
What does Glucose indicate?
What do Ketone Bodies indicate?
What do Bile Pigments indicate?
What do Erythrocytes indicate?
What does hemoglobin indicate?
What is Pyuria?
inflammation of the urinary tract
What is Albuminuria?
excessive exertion or protein intake; damage to the glomerular membrane from trauma, toxins, or glomerulonephritis
What is Glycosuria?
Sugar in the urine; excessive carbohydrate intake or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
What is Ketonuria?
the presence of intermediate products of fat metabolism in the urine; abnormal metabolic processes such as starvation or diabetes mellitus
What is Bilirubinuria?
the presence of bilirubin in the urine; liver pathology; false positives
What is Hematuria?
blood in the urine; kidney stones, infection, and trauma; contamination of menstruating females
What is Hemoglobinuria?
hemoglobin in the urine; hemolysis of red blood cells; pathologies include hemolytic anemia, burns, and renal disease
What is the primary function of the male reproductive system?
to make and deliver sperm to the reproductive tract
What is the primary function of the female reproductive system?
to produce eggs and nurture the fetus
What hormone do the testes secrete?
The pouch of skin and connective tissue that contains the testes
What two muscles help regulate the temperature of the testes?
cremaster and dartos
Where is sperm produced?
Which cells secrete testosterone?
Head of Sperm
flat nucleus; compacted DNA
Midpeice of Sperm
mitochondria; makes ATP
Tail of Sperm (Flagellum)
protein; provides movement
what is another name for Ductus Deferens ?
what structure is ligated during a vasectomy?
What carries structures (such as blood vessels and nerves) to and from the testes?
what three structures are found in the spermatic cord?
ductus deferens, pompiniform plexus, and testicular artery
what accessory glands are located behind the bladder?
which gland forms a ring around the urethra?
which glands are located beneath the prostate within the urogenital diaphragm?
in the penis, which structure surrounds the urethra?
which fold of skin surround the glans penis?
prepuce or foreskin
which structures are paired dorsal erectile tissues?
which organs produce ova, estrogen, and progesterone?
ovaries or ovarus
what hormones do women secrete?
estrogen and progesterone
where are the ovaries located?
which ligament attaches the ovary to the uterus?
Which portion of the ovary does oogenesis occur in: the cortex or medulla?
When does oogenesis begin in the female?
before birth; 5-6 weeks of fetal development
what structure produces progesterone and estrogen (corpus hemorrhagicum)
what structure carries the ovulated oocyte from the ovary to the uterus?
Where does fertilization usually occur?
ampulla of the uterine tube
is there any direct contact between the infundibulum and the ovary?
the rounded region of the uterus above the opening to the uterine tubes
the largest portion of the uterus
Which narrowed uterine structure projects into the vagina?
What is the thick layer of smooth muscle that is important during childbirth?
what is the innermost layer that lines the uterine cavity
10cm muscular tube that extends from the uterus
what are the recessed areas around the cervix called?
What general term describes the female's external genitalia?
what structures are paired adipose-containing folds and are the homologues of the male scrotum?
Which area is enclosed by the labia minora?
What two orifices are contained in the vestibule?
external urethra and vagina
the circular pigmented area that surrounds the nipples
which structure produces milk in lactating females
What do lactiferous ducts expand to form?
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
which cells are the stem cells found at the outermost edge of the tubule?
type A spermatogonia
two cells produced by a dividing spermatogonia
type A spermatogonia and type b daughter cells
what event happens for primary spermatocytes to form secondary spermatocytes?
1st mitotic division
what is the name for the daughter cells of secondary spermatocytes?
What process must spermatids undergo to mature into sperm?
In what sac-like structure does each ovum develop?
When a female is born, what stage are most of her ovarian follicles in?
the presence of what fluid-filled cavity distinguishes a secondary follicle from a primary follicle?
When a follicle reaches a mature stage and attains its full size, what is it called?
what process occurs when the ovary ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte?
a fertilized egg
a thick but transparent membrane surrounding the oocyte and zygote
a rapid series of mitotic divisions of the zygotes
a beryy-shaped cluster of 16 cells
successively smaller cells produced as the fertilized egg divides
the structure which escapes the zona pellucida and is a fluid-filled sphere
a single layer enclosing the central cavity of the blastocyst which takes part in placenta formation
a cluster of rounded cells seen at one side of the blastocyst that later forms the embryo proper
inner cell mass
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