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national income accounting
measures the economy's overall performance.; helps a country plot its future strategy.
Are goods and services that are purchased for resale or for further processing or manufacturing.
Are consumption goods, capital goods, and services that are purchased by their final users, rather than for resale or for further processing or manufacturing.
This distorts the value of GDP, because it takes into account goods more than one time.; ex) only final goods included ion GDP because intermediate goods are already included in final goods.
Is the market value of a firm's output minus the value of the inputs the firm has brought from others.
Is the view of GDP as the income derived or created from producing it. (AKA earnings/allocation approach)
personal conumption expenditures (C)
Is all expenditures by households on durable consumer goods, nondurable goods, and consumer expenditures for services.
gross private domestic investment
is the total investment that includes final purchases of machinery, equipment, and tools by business enterprises, all construction, and change in inventories.
net private domestic investment
This includes only investment in the form of added capital. aka net investment =gross investment-depreciation (capital that is used up).
taxes on production and imports
Are general sales taxes, excise taxes, business property taxes, license fees, and customs duties.
Is the total of all sources of private income (employee compensation, rents, interest, propietor's income, and corporate profits) plus government revenue from taxes on production and imports.
consumption of fixed capital
Is the huge depreciation charge made against private and publicly owned capital each year. It is the allowance for capital that has been consumed in producing the year's GDP.
net domestic product (NDP)
Is what we get when we subtract the capital that was consumed in producing the GDP and that had to be replaced from the GDP. ex. NDP=GDP-consumption of capital.
personal income (PI)
This includes all income received, whether earned or unearned. This differs from national income as some income is not received by households.
disposable income (DI)
Is personal income minus personal taxes. Its the money left over that households have after personal taxes.
Is a measure of the price of a specified collection of goods and services, called a "market basket", in a given year as compared to the price of an identical collection of goods and services in a reference year.
Is an increase in real GDP occurring over some period of time or an increase in real GDP per capita occurring over some time.
rule of 70
This is a mathematical approximation that tells us that we can find the number of years it will take for some measure to double, given its annual percentage increase, by dividing that percent into the number 70.
modern economic growth
This is characterized by sustained and ongoing increases in living standards that can cause dramatic increases in the standard of living within less than a single human lifetime.
Are rich countries that typically grows by an average annual rate of 2-3%/year because they have to develope new technology.
Are poorer countries and typically grow faster than rich countries because they just adopt the rich countries technology.
Are changes in the physical and technical agents of production and enable an economy to expand its potential GDP.
Is the fifth ingredient of economic growth and is when households, businesses, and government must purchase the economy's expanding output of goods and services.
Sixth ingredient of economic growth and is when an economy must achieve economic efficiency as well as full employment.
labor-force participation rate
Is the percentage of the working-age population actually in the labor force.
Is system used by the council of Economic Advisors that asses the relative importance of the supply-side elements that contribute to changes in real GDP.
includes highways and bridges, public transit systems, wastewater treatment facilities, water systems, airports, educational facilities etc...
economies of sale
Are reductions in per-unit production costs that result from increases in output levels.
Is used to connect word together and includes the computer, fiber-optic cable, wireless technology, and the internet.
Are new firms with many creating more hype than goods and often failing while some flourish.
Is a situation in which a given percentage increase in the amount of inputs a firm uses leads to an even larger percentage increase in the amount of output the firm produces.
Are increases in the value of the product to each user, including existing users, as the total number of users rises. ex. internet->email, software->attach photos/documents.
learning by doing
Is when firms produce new products or pioneer new ways of doing business experience increasing returns. reduces time it takes to do a task when these methods are perfected.
Are alternating rises and declines in the level of economic activity, sometimes over several years.
Is part of the business cycle in which output and employment "bottom out" at their lowest levels.
Is when workers, after unsuccessfully seeking employment for a time, become discouraged and drop out of the labor force.
Consists of search unemployment and wait unemployment, for workers who are either searching for jobs or waiting to take jobs in the near future.
Is when workers find that their skills and experience have become obsolete or unneeded thus find that they have no marketable talents and need to develop new ones.
full-employment rate of unemploment
Same as NRU; is the employment rate that is consistent with full employment.
natural rate of unemployment (NRU)
same as full-employment rate of unemployment; is the employment rate that is consistent with full employment.
Indicates that for every 1 percentage point by which the actual unemployment rate exceeds the natural rate, a negative GDP gap of about 2 percent occurs.
consumer price index (CPI)
Is the main measure of inflation in the US and the government uses this to report inflation rates each month and each year.
Is inflation that is caused by an excess of total spending beyond the economy's capacity to produce.
Is inflation that is caused by rising prices in terms of factors that raise per-unit production costs at each level of spending.; imported raw materials price's increase causing inflation.; self limiting.
Is a measure of the amount of goods and services nominal income can buy; income adjusted for inflation.
not expected inflation that causes real income and wealth to be redistributed, harming some and benefiting others.
expected inflation and allows people to plan ahead, and are able to avoid or lessen the redistribution effects associated with inflation.
cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs)
Is a benefit that automatically increases when the CPI increases, preventing erosion of benefits from inflation (loss of benefit).
real interest rate
Is there percentage increase in purchasing power that the borrower pays the lender.
Is the decrease in price level; opposite of inflation and its effects; people w/ fixed incomes find their real incomes enhanced and creditors will benefit over debtors.
Is the extraordinarily rapid inflation, and can have devastating impact on real output and employment.
public transfer payments
Are the social security payments, welfare payments, and veterans' payments that the government makes directly to households.
Private transfer payments
Is the money that parents give their children or the cash gifts given at christmas time.
Stock market transactions
The buying or selling of stocks (and bonds) is just a matter of swapping bits of paper.
In a competative market:
resources will be misallocated if government does not properly adjust demand and supply for large external costs and benefits.
The owners of a firm face unlimited liability for the firms debts in:
both a proprietorship and a partnership.
Many economists believe that the widespread use of computerized inventory control systems:
Has contributed to a reduced severity of the business cycle.
The tax rates embodied in the Federal personal income tax are such that:
The marginal tax rate is higher than the average tax rate, causing the average rate to rise.
The primary economic advantage of the EU has to its members is:
the reduction of trade barriers permits producers to achieve mass-production economies.
The coincidence-of-wants problem associated with barter refers to the fact that:
For exchange to occur each seller must have a product that some buyer wants.
Which of the following is a normative statement?
It is too hot to play tennis today. Its a judgment call that is directly or indirectly asking for approval or disapproval (opinion)
If you leave a football game early you will get home early/quickly. Therefore everyone should leave the game early to get home more quickly. What does this example define?
fallacy of composition
the business cycle
This refers to economy-wide short run fluctuations in production or economic activity over several months or years.
real GDP (gross domestic product)
This measures the value of final goods and services produced within the borders of a given country during a given period of time (usually a yr).
Is the total dollar value of all goods and services produced within the borders of a given country using their current prices during the year that they were produced.
Is the state a person is in if he or she cannot get a job despite willing to work and actively seeking work.
modern economic growth
Is when the countries output increases faster than the population size; An increase in living standards.
Is when consumption is less than current output or when spending is less than current income.
Is the purchases of assets like stocks, bonds, and real estate in the hope of reaping a financial gain.; its what most people capture when they say investment.
situations in which firms were expecting one thing to happen but then something else happens.
is when prices in th economy are not able to change rapidly when demand or supply change unexpectedly.; sticky prices.
Is when the comparative costs of two products within the two nations are different. p.97 US>Mex. cuz US must forgo 3 avacados for 1 soybean where as mexico must forgo 4.
terms of trade
Are negotiations between two countries that develop exchange rates for products and is mutually beneficial to both countries.
foreign exchange market
Is a market in which various national currencies are exchanged for one another.
Is the rate at which the currency of one nation can be exchanged for the currency of another nation.
Is when the value of the dollar decreases or the dollar price of another countries currency increases.
Is when the value of the dollar increases, or when the dollar price of another countries currency decreases.
Includes onerous licensing requirements, unreasonable standards pertaining to product quality, or simply bureaucratic hurdles and delays in customs procedures.
Are governments payments to domestic producers of export goods. Used to reduce production costs and enable producers to charge lower prices and sell more exports.
smoot-hawley tariff act
Was a high tariif that was intended to reduce imports and stimulate US production but back fired causing other nations to retaliate with tariffs of their own, which caused a decline in international trade.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
Was created with the aim at reducing tariffs by negotiating authority (president negotiations) and Generalized reductions (reductions to all NTR nations).;;; Only between two nations.
normal-trade-relations (NTR) status
Is a status that is awarded by one nation to another, which means that the receiving nation will be granted all trade advantages.
General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
The broadened idea of the reciprocal trade agreement act for multiple nations; Three principles: 1) equal, nondisctiminatory trade treatment for all members, 2) the reduction of tariffs by multilateral negotiation, and 3) the elimination of import quotas.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
It oversees trade agreements reached by member nations. GATTS' successor from the Uruguay Round GATT.
Is the latest round of WTO and is aimed at further reducing tariffs and quotas, as well as agricultural subsidies that distort trade.
European Union (EU)
Is a trade bloc whose members are mainly European nations. has 27 countries today.
A group of countries having a common identity, economic interests and trade rules. They are aka free-trade-zones.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Is a trade bloc that has the same output as the EU and comprises Canada, Mexico, and the US.
Trade Adjustment Assistance Act
This helps those who are hurt by shifts in international trade patterns and provides cash assistance for up to 78 weeks for workers who are displaced by imports, or plant relocations abroad.
Is when firms and businesses shifts work previously done by American workers to workers located in other nations. Done due to increased profits.
functional distribution of income
This indicates how the nation's income is apportioned among wages, rents, interest, and profits, that is, according to the function performed by the income receiver.
personal distribution of income
This indicates how the nation's total income is divided among individual households.
Is a physical establishment (factory, farm, mine, store, or warehouse) that performs one or more functions in fabricating and distributing goods and services.
Is an organization that employs resources to produce goods and services for profit and operates one or more plants.
The form of business organization that is a natural growth of a sole proprietorship; Two or more individuals agree two own and operate a business together.
Is a legal creation that can acquire resources, own assets, produce and sell products, incur debts, extend credit, sue and be sued, and perform the functions of any other type of enterprise.
Is an IOU, in acknowledgement of a loan, whereby the corporation promises to pay the holder a fixed amount set forth on the bond at some specified future date and other fixed amounts (interest) every year up to the bond's maturity date.
Is when personal assets are not at stake if the corporation defaults on debts and so creditors cannot sue the owners of the corporation but can sue the corporation.
Is when the interests of the mangers and the wishes of the owners do not coincide. Principles are the stockholders who own the corporation and the agents are the ones who are hired by the principles that run the corporation.
Occurs when some of the costs or the benefits of a good are passed on to or "spill over to" someone other than the immediate buyer or seller.
Production or consumption costs inflicted on a third party without compensation.
Are goods that people can simultaneously obtain and includes: GPS, national defense, street lighting, and environmental protection.
Are goods that include education, streets and highways, police and fire protection, libraries and museums, preventive medicine, and sewage disposal. Government often provides them to avoid the
The products purchased directly absorb resources and are a part of the domestic output; Are exhaustive;
The products that do not directly absorb resources or create output; non-exhaustive.
personal income tax
Tax that is levied on taxable income, that is, on the incomes of households and unincorporated businesses after certain exemptions and deductions are taken into account.
Tax based on wages and salaries used to finance two compulsory Federal programs for retired workers: Social security and Medicare.
corporate income tax
Is tax that is levied on a corporation's profit - the difference between its total revenue and its total expenses.
Is an ad valorem tax that an owner is required to pay on the value of the property being taxed.
Is a schedule or a curve that shows the various amounts of a product that consumers are willing and able to purchase at each of a series of possible prices during a specified period of time.
law of demand
Is a negative or inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. IE as people buy more product, service, or resource as its price falls.
diminishing marginal utility
Idea that obtaining multiple goods of the same thing the second, third, etc... have a reduced satisfaction compared to the first.
Indicates that a lower price increases the purchasing power of a buyer's money income, enabling the buyer to purchase more of the product than before.
Indicates that at a lower price buyers have the incentive to substitute what is now a less expensive product for similar products that are now relatively more expensive.
Curve that plots price vs quantity with its downward slope reflecting the law of demand.
determinants of demand
Are factors that can and do effect demand. AKA demand shifters. Ex. consumer preferences, # of buyers, income, prices of related goods, and consumer expectations.
change in demand
Is a shift of the demand curve to the right (increase in demand) or to the left (a decrease in demand).
Is a schedule or curve showing the various amounts of a product that producers are willing and able to make available for sale at each of a series of possible prices during a specific period.
Curve that corresponds with the price-quantity supplied data in the accompanying table.
determinants of supply
Are factors that can and do effect supply. AKA supply shifters. Ex. resource prices, technology, taxes and subsidies, prices of other goods, producer expectations, and # of sellers in market.
change in supply
A change in the supply schedule and a shift in the supply curve.
(increase shifts to right and decrease to left).
Not enough product from there being to much demand and not enough quantity. Below equilibrium.
Sets a maximum legal price a seller may charge for a product or service. Helps consumers obtain essential products that are unaffordable at the equilibrium price.
Sets a minimum legal price a seller may charge for a product or service. Help consumers that are struggling for income because their products' equilibrium price is too low to make enough money.
A particular set of institutional arrangements and a coordinating mechanism to respond to the economizing problem.
Government owns most property resources and economic decision making occurs through a central economic plan.
Characterized by the private ownership of resources and the use of markets and prices to coordinate and direct economic activity.
Is the right of persons and firms to obtain, own, control, employ, dispose of, and bequeath land, capital, and other forms of property.
freedom of enterprise
Ensures that entrepreneurs and private businesses are free to obtain and use economic resources to produce their choice of goods and services and to sell them in their chosen markets.
Idea that each economic subunit tries to achieve its own particular goal, which usually requires delivering something of value to others.
Ensures that no single buyer or seller dictates the price of a product or resource because others can undercut that price.
Is the use of resources of an individual, firm, region, or nation to produce one or a few goods or services rather than the entire range of goods services.
Is the creation of new products and production methods completely destroys the market positions of firms that are wedded to existing products and older ways of doing business. Ex. tapes->CDs
Is the idea that firms and resource suppliers, seeking to further their own self-interest and operating within the framework of a highly competitive market system, will simultaneously promote the public or social interest.
The place where resources or the services of resource suppliers are bought and sold.
The social science concerned with how individuals, institutions, and society make optimal choices under conditions of scarcity.
Is a type of sacrifice; To obtain more of one thing, society forgoes the opportunity of getting the next best thing.
Is the pleasure, happiness, or satisfaction obtained from consuming a good or service; Measure of relative satisfaction.
Is the comparisons of costs versus benefits; EX. benefit=larger size of ring (utility or pleasure); cost=added expense beyond the cost of the smaller size. Weigh cost and benefits till the marginal costs outweigh the benefits.
1) Observing real-world behavior and outcomes.
2)Based on observations, a possible explanation of cause and effect (hypothesis) can be formulated.
3) Test by comparing real-world outcomes with the hypothesis's predictions.
4) Accepting, rejecting, and changing the hypothesis based on the comparisons.
5) Continued testing. As favorable results accumulate, the hypothesis turns into a theory. A widely tested and accepted theory will then turn into an economic law or principle.
A statement about economic behavior or the economy that enables prediction of the probable effects of certain actions.; A very well tested theory.; ""'s are expressed as the tenancies of typical or average consumers, workers, or business firms.
An assumption in which factors, other than those being considered, do not change.; Assumes all variables except the ones under consideration are held constant.
Part of economics concerned with individual units such as a person, household, firm, or an industry (small segment of the economy).
Is the part of economics that examines either the economy as a whole or its basic subdivisions or aggregates, such as the government, household, and business sectors.
This incorporates value judgments about what the economy should be like or what particular policy actions should be recommended to achieve a desirable goal.; looks at the desirability of certain aspects of the economy.
All natural, human, and manufactured resources that go into the production of goods and services.
This includes all natural resources (gifts of nature) used in the production process, such as arable land, forests, mineral and oil deposits, and water resources.
This consists of the physical and mental talents of individuals used in producing goods and services.
Entrepreneur abilities: 1) Entrepreneurs takes the initiative in combining the resources of land, labor, and capital to produce a good or service. 2) " makes the strategic business decisions that set the course of an enterprise. 3) " is an innovator. 4) " is a risk bearer.
factors of production
They are land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial ability. These are also called "inputs".
production possibilities curve
Displays the different combinations of goods and services that society can produce in a fully employed economy.
law of increasing opportunity costs
As the production of a particular good increases, the opportunity cost of producing an additional unit rises.
Is when an increase in the quantity and quality of resources occurs, the production possibilities curve shifts outward and to the right.; A larger total output.
Importance of scarce resources and unlimited wants?
Because we have scarce resources and an unlimited wants, everyday we have to decide what we will have and what we will forgo choosing what we will have in the most optimal way possible.
Why no free goods?
All resources are either privately or collectively owned; so goods may seem free but someone bears a cost (society maybe?).
What is purposeful behavior?
People make decisions with some desired outcome in mind; They weigh costs and benefits, so their behavior is rational in order to maximize their satisfaction.
Positive versus normative economics?
Positive economics concerns "what is", whereas normative economics embodies subjective feelings about "what ought to be". Ex) positive: The unemployment in France "is" higher than in the US. normative: The unemployment "ought to/should be" higher than the US.
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