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Microbiology Exam 3
Terms in this set (107)
Because their cells are similar to the structure of our cells (humans)
Why are Eukaryotic parasites difficult to treat?
Nucleus- linear chromosomes
What is the structure of eukaryotic cells?
Mitosis (1 cell copies DNA to 2 identical daughter cells)
Many eukaryotic microbes can produce asexually
Asexual eukaryotic reproduction
Meiosis & Fertilization
Most eukaryotic microbes can reproduce sexually
Sexual eukaryotic reproduction
Lack photosynthesis, non-motile
fungi, yeast and microsporidians
Protozoa: motile, generally non-photosynthetic (alveolates, amebas, trypanosomes, metamonads)
Algae: photosynthetic, generally non-motile
Have organ systems, similar transmission/infection cycle as microbial pathogens
heterotrophs need to get their nutrition from ______________ molecules
motile by pseudopod, heterotrophs
motile by flagella or cilia, heterotrophs
motile, complex life cycle (parasites)
woody parts of plants
lignin digests what?
digest lignin, decomposers, mycorrhizae and nutrients, antibiotics (penicillin), food products
pros to microsporidians
pathogens (histoplasmosis, tineas, aspergillosis
cons to microsporidians
branched networks of fungal hyphae => cells with multiple nuclei
filamentous fungi mycelium
chitin can be found in the cell walls of what? It is strong and is used as a good antifugal agent
Mycelium of branched network of hyphae
Chitin in cell walls
digestive enzymes released, breakdown nutrients, absorbed by hyphae
asexual reproduction uses
sexual reproduction uses
hyphae use ____________ to divide, this means that they are not forming individual membranes in between the dividing cells
Contained in an ascus. Gametes and DNA are protected here
mitosis starts and ends with _______
yeasts are better known as single celled what?
asexual reproduction via budding
vegetative growth in yeasts
still absorptive nutrition, non-motile, chitin cell walls, sexual and asexual reproduction
microsporidia are genetically related to what?
chitin cell walls
producers and consumers in food web
motile via pseudopod
opportunistic pathogens (dysentery, meningitis)
unicellular and multicellular
two major groups:
-Lobed: large, bulky pseudopods (important in food web, soil and aquatic)
-Filamentous: thin, needle-like pseudopods. Shells of calcium carbonate (limestone)
large, bulky pseudopods (important in food web, soil and aquatic). Move by pseudopods.
thin, needle-like pseudopods. Shells of calcium carbonate (limestone). Useful to humans. Move by pseudopods.
-Excystation and development into trophozoites
-reproduction; feed on red blood cells
-Cysts form and released from body
found in the warm waters of MN (Lily Lake)
Have flattened vesicles called alveoli within their outer cortex
most also have:
-cilia or flagella
-cortical organelles for protection or pathogenicity
Ciliates: have cilia
Dinoflagellates: have flagella
Apicomplexans: have apical complex and complex life cycles
the three major groups of alveolates
heterotrophic protists that consume algae and other smaller protists. They serve two functions:
Balantidium coli causes dysentery
Balantidium coli causes ______________
Essential to marine food chains. They produce the red tide. Secondary endosymbiont algae
True algae (red and green) engulfed __________ for photosynthesis.
Dinoflagellates engulfed ___________
Dinoflagellates have several ____________ relationships
Parasites of humans and other animals. Include an apical complex and examples are malaria ad toxoplasmosis
specialized structure that facilitates entry into host cell (increases virulence) They help the cell infect the host
Plasmodium spp. Mosquito vector.
Toxoplasma gondii. Food borne and congenital transmission. Cysts contain oocytes and get transmitted via tissues, feces and contaminated materials
the schizont bursts and releases merozoites into local environment where they infect new RBC's
when several progeny merozoites are generated:
infected RBC's with an apical are called what?
Travel, Immigration, Empathy, Global Economy
why should Americans care about malaria?
What are elongates cells with one flagella?
Eulenids are _________ parasites
whip-like flagella and chloroplasts, similar to dinoflagellates (sleeping sickness)
trypanosomes can rapidly "change" the VSG's on the cell surface
flagellated parasites, distantly related to other flagellates. Aerobic, no mitochondria
infections common from contaminated water
What type of infections are STI's with about 50% asymptomatic infections
a good antifungal target
2n to n
how to ciliates control the amount of water in the cell?
acquire food & cell propulsion
the ciliates have cilia to...
we take samples to identify the ____________________ to be sure we are properly prescribing the correct medications to treat the disease. (dysentery)
what engulfed ancient cyanobacteria for photosynthesis?
are dinoflagellates true algae?
can dinoflagellates undergo photosynthesis?
They engulfed algae
how do dinoflagellates undergo photosynthesis?
Trypanosomes belong to what group?
motile parasites that use whip-like flagellates
Trypanosomes /Euglenids are what?
what form get picked up by insects (stumpy or slender?)
antigens that trigger an immune response. These can change.
are helminths are arthropods transmittable?
invertebrate animals with exoskeleton and jointed appendages
only attach to the outside of the host
end up underneath the skin or in the tissue of the host
Acari group. 8 legs with wings.
cause mange (in animals) and scabies in animals or humans. These burrow. Causes inflammation, itching and pain. highly infectious skin-skin contact.
often vectors carrying other pathogens. Transmit bacteria, protozoa, viruses. Ectoparasites: they suck blood then fall off; pathogens transmitted during feeding.
6 legs with or without wings
wingless ectoparasites, specific to one host species (animal sticks to animals, human sticks to humans)
jumping, wingless ectoparasites; can alternate from human to animal species.
suck blood of host and lay eggs elsewhere.
non-living, non-cellular, non-metabolic (rely on host cell), no independent reproduction. Genetic material is NOT always DNA (can be RNA).
Pathogenic: infect all forms of life.
Beneficial in gene therapy & cloning vectors & control other populations; promote diversity
referring to the actual virus particle (physical entity)
encompasses the physical and life cycle of the virus (infection /disease that the virus can cause)
-genome (DNA or RNA): single or double stranded
-Capsid: protein coat
-Envelope (enveloped or naked)
lipid bilayer from host cell and viral proteins projecting from surface
no protective capsid (genome only) most infect plants (citrus viroids).
no nucleic acid (protein only). Abnormal form of a protein (Prpc) beta sheets instead of rounded globular. Can be inherited or transmissible from parent to offspring or animal to animal.
Viruses of the same genome are more likely to share __________ with eachother
_________ stranded RNA genomes need to first make a copy of itself and produce the positive strand before translation will occur to get any protein products.
What takes DNA and makes RNA?
product of RNA polymerase
RNA-dependent means that it depends on what as the starting point?
Makes a DNA copy from RNA- RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
how many different host species a virus can actually infect
inside a host the virus may only infect certain tissues/organs
The ability to affect a different cell of a host
Host range and tissue tropism depend on _____________. They will only bind to the one that they can effect
antigens/ proteins on the surface of the protein change due to random mutations in genome
shuffling of genetic information from 2+ sources
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