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policy of powerful countries seeking to control the economic and political affairs of weaker countries


a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country

Scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)

White mans burden

idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized

British east india company

Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch

Indian national congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)

Nationalist Movement

the activities of a group focused on freeing a nation from foreign influence and control

Salt March

passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.

Mahatma Ghandi

-Hindu leader who protested with non violent acts and civil disobedience
-Was able to:
1. Pull India out of British rule
2. Heal the clash between Hindus and Muslims
3. Gave rights to Outcastes, calling them "God's Children"


the form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Mahatma Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms


peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate


a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent

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