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hard, unweathered rock of the planet


The first stage of weathering bedrock is to produce a layer of rock chips, pebbles, and fragments


a dark material composed of decaying organic matter

Parent Rock

The original rock that was weathered

Transported Soil

Sometimes soil is not related to the rock it sits on or to a nearby rock

Residual Soil

stays put on top of its parent rock
This soil often develops distinct layers called horizons

Horizon A- Topsoil

Water leaches minerals form here

Horizon B- Subsoil

Contains minerals leached from the topsoil of Horizon A. Contains clay and perhaps some hummus. May contain the minerals remaining after water has evaporated.

Horizon C- Partly Weathered Bedrock

This is in the first stages of chemical and mechanical weathering. Continued weathering will turn into Horizon B or even Horizon A material. Transported soil is an undifferentiated mix of material and has no horizon.


In tropical climates, the heavy rains cause rapid chemical weathering.


Rains about 25 inches per year. Contains clay, quartz, and iron. Found in states east of the Mississippi River and in the Gulf Cast states.


Rains about 25 inches per year. Contain calcium carbonate which combines with excess hydrogen to make soil less acidic. Found in states west of the Mississippi Rive. A very fertile soil


lay of the land, is a factor in soil development

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