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The most abundant substance in plasma


The cell type that can differentiate into all the different formed elements

right atrium

The chamber that pumps blood through the tricuspid valve is the

systematic circuit

In the human heart, the blood is pumped from the left ventricle into

left ventricle and right atrium

Systematic circulation is connected to which two chambers of the heart

Pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle

A correct sequence for blood flow in the adult human heart is

pulmonary vein

In a molecule if CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except

pulmonary artery

If a molecule of oxygen gas enters your body through your nose and ends up in your liver, it must travel through each of the following except:

right ventricle

The chamber that pumps blood to the lungs is the

there would be back flow of blood into the right ventricle

If damage occurs to the pulmonary semi lunar valve in the heart

left atrium

The chamber that receives blood from the lungs is the

Both cannot exchange gasses and nutrients across their walls

Which is true of both arteries and veins?

right ventricle and left atrium

The pulmonary circuit connects which chamber of the heart

Systolic contraction would still occur, but diastolic relaxation could not occur

What would happen to a mammalian heart if the nerves leading to it were severed

S-A Node

The pacemaker of the human heart, at which intrinsic beat of the heart muscle is initiated, is technically called the

right atrium

The chamber in which the pacemaker (S-A node) is located is the

S-A node

The heartbeat is initiated in the

both ventricles

Scar tissue forms in portions of the heart as a result of infection. If scar tissue formed around the A-V node and blocked the node from signals, which of the following parts of the heart would no longer contract?

both ventricle

If the AV bundle was surgically removed, which of the following parts of the heart would probably fail to contract?

the aortic semi lunar valve opens

When the left ventricle contracts what happens?


In a mammal, blood pressure is the highest in the

when the ventricles are contracting during systole

When is blood pressure at a maximum?


If the blood of a human is 110/80 what's the diastolic pressure?

artery in the arm

In which of the following blood vessels would the blood pressure be the highest?

Muscle action occur and the veins have one way valves

In order for blood to be brought back properly from the lower extremities of the body of the heart it is necessary that

the contraction of nearby muscles

What propels the blood in the vein toward the heart


The cells that dispose of old/ damaged erythrocytes:


Which of the following would you not expects to find in blood plasma?

combines with hemoglobin

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported

it bonds more readily to hemoglobin than does oxygen

Carbon monoxide is a well known poison because

pulmonary artery

Which one of the following does not lead into or out of the right atrium

closure of the AV valves

The 'lub' sound in the 'lub/dub' of the heartbeat is due to


Rapid and uncoordinated contraction of the heart chambers:

pulmonary artery and superior vena cava

Which of the following structures does not lead into or out of the left side of the heart?


Contraction of the atria causes which wave of EKG?

High in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide

The blood in the pulmonary vein is


Most of the blood volume at any given time is in the


An average systolic pressure in a healthy adult at rest


A weakening in the wall of an artery

right ventricle

The chamber that pumps blood to the lungs

right atrium

The chamber that pumps blood through the tricuspid valve

respiratory and circulatory

The 2 systems which supply O2 and eliminate CO2 are:

An exchange of gases between atmosphere, blood and cells

Respiration is:

Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration, gas exchange

What are some basic processes for respiration


Each side of the nasal cavity is separated by the:

air and food

The pharynx functions as a passageway for:

voice box

The larynx is commonly called the:


The trachea is commonly called the:

vocal chords

Sound originates principally from the:


The insertion of a firm tube into the trachea to act as an air passage:

the bronchioles constrict

During an asthma attack

intake of air into the lungs

Pulmonary ventilation, breathing, can best be defined by:

greater than atmospheric pressure

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is:


If pressure in the lungs is decreased, the volume of the air in the lungs will:

PO2= 78% x 14.7lbs./in^2

What is the correct calculations for PO2 for atmospheric oxygen at sea level:


The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood is:

cell respiration

The exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and living cells is:

PO2 in the cells is greater than PO2 in the blood

O2 diffuses from the blood to the cells because:


Tuberculosis used the be called consumption


The larynx is the last common structure for the passage of food and air together


Asthma is caused by the constriction of the trachea


Another term for breathing is pulmonary ventilation


External respiration cannot occur efficiently if the alveoli are damaged by disease:


The device commonly used to measure the amount of air exchange during breathing is called a spirometer


Air is filter by cilia into the respiratory system:


The inspiration of air is best accomplished through the mouth:


The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange:


Pneumonia is an infections disease


Damaged alveoli is a common result of tuberculosis:


The bronchioles are the most important structure in the respiratory system:


In the path of the intake of air through the body, the larynx immediately follows the pharynx


The brain monitors the concentrations of O2 and CO2 in order to control the breathing rate


gas exchange is dependent on physical process of ventilation


vocal chords are located in the pharynx


An upper respiratory tract infection could affect the nasal passages:

Aids in mastication, plays a major role in swallowing, is a major sensory organ for taste, is a major organ for speech

What are functions of the tongue?

32, 30

There are __ teeth in the normal adult mouth which are replacements for the __ deciduous teeth that are lost during childhood:


The human adult mouth contains __ incisors:

periodontal disease

____ is the main cause of tooth decay:

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

Wat are pairs of salivary glands?

a muscular tube

The esophagus is:

duoedenal glands

What structure does not increase the surface area of the small intestine?

break down food, absorb nutrients, eliminate wastes, take in nutrients

Digestive system functions:

diameter of the intestinal tube

Which of these characteristics increases as one move from the ileum to the cecum?

an ileocecal sphincter

At the location where the small intestine joins the large intestine, there is:

contributes to the digestive process, helps regulate glucose levels in the blood

The liver functions:


The mumps is a disease resulting from the infection of this gland:

The gallbladder

Excess cholesterol can build up from stones in this organ:


This organ serves no known digestive function:


Which of these structures is not part of the large intestine?

is the proximal end of the large intestine, contains bacteria, has the appendix attached to it, is at the location where the ileum joins the large intestine

The cecum:

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon

Order of large intestine:


The major digestive secretion of the salivary glands:


The uvula is part of the:


The enzyme contained in the saliva breaks down:

water and amylase

Saliva contains:

breaks large food particles into small food particles, increases the efficiency of mechanical digestion, occurs in the mouth and the stomach

Mechanical digestion:


The movement of the epiglottis over the opening of the larynx occurs in:

the gastric phase

The greatest volume of the gastric secretion occurs during:

none of the above

Which of these would inhibit gastric secretion?

amino acids

Providing ___ for synthesis of proteins is a necessary ingredient in a sound diet

strong peristaltic waves, ingested food is moved with stomach secretions by mixing waves

What describes the movement of food in the stomach?

produces trypsin

All of these are functions of the liver except:


Which of these is an enzyme produces by the parotid gland?

secretion of the digestive enzymes

Which of these is not a function of the large intestine?


most vitamins as as:


Which of these is not an ingested carbohydrate?


The carbohydrate that is carried to the cell for use as an energy source:

bile salts

Emulsification of fats is accomplished by:


Retinol is also known as vitamin:


Pepsin break down proteins into amino acids?


Pepsinogen must be activated by HCL


Amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine:


Water moves across the wall of the small intestine b:


From a psychological standpoint, the elements sodium, potassium, chlorine and phosphorus are considered to be:


Aerobic exercise tends to elevate the levels of LDL's

do not get enough glucose into their cells, have cells with low energy levels, have increased blood glucose levels, produce urine containing large amounts of glucose

People with uncontrollable diabetes:

That some meals, especially breakfast trigger mass movements in the colon, that movement of feces into the rectum initiates the defecation reflex

Your friend Reg Yular noticed that every morning after breakfast, he had a bowel movement, regardless of the amount he ate. Since he knows you are a student of physiology, he inquires why this happens. You explain:


Your friend, Ima Tense has an ulcer. You explain to her that is it probably a pathogen called helicobacter pylori, which is a strain of:


What nutrients are taken into the body without being broken down?

essential vitamins

Vitamins that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet are:


What molecule contains the most energy per unit of weight?


A typical diet in the United States consists of which of these molecules in greatest abundance?


What carbohydrate is derived from animals?


A primary energy source for most cells is:


What is not a complex carbohydrate?


Fiber, or "roughage" in the diet usually comes from:

saturated fat and protein

Meat, dairy products, and eggs contain mostly:


Humans have a total of __ amino acids

production of energy, normal cell division and growth, synthesis of blood clotting proteins, protein synthesis

Vitamins are involved in:

B Complex and C complex

Water soluble vitamins include:


Vitamin E is referred to as:


Glucose is oxidized to produce this


The human body's main long-term energy storage molecules are:

lack of vitamin c

Scurvy is a disease of:

Increases energy usage, Elevates temperature and causes an oxygen debt, which will elevate a person's metabolic rate, Epinephrine levels will increase, resulting in increased blood glucose, which can depress the hunger center in the brain

What are reasons why exercise would help a person lose weight?

Yes protein is broken down to form amino acids, which can only be used to form new proteins

Will eating a diet that contains only protein prevent a person from increasing their amount of body fat, regardless of how much they eat?

nervous system

Sodium and potassium serve a major function in the


Iodine plays a major role in the operation of this


Anemia would require supplements of what mineral


A Calorie is equal to how many calories?


An ingested chemical used for growth, maintenance, or repair by the body

They are considered to be part of the immune system

Doctors are hesitant to remove tonsils now because

It holds food in place, it aids swallowing, it has taste receptors

The tongue is an important part of the digestive system because


This structure prevents food from passing into the trachea during swallowing


This process forces food into the esophagus from the pharynx


The stomach empties its contents into this part of the small intestine:


The digestion and utilization of which nutrient creates the greatest need for regulation by the kidneys?


From what compound is urea produced?

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