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Microbiology: Chapter 16-18
Terms in this set (79)
What structures are included in the integument (skin)?
Glands, epithelium, etc. NOT Blood vessels
What organisms (not just bacteria) are normal biota on the skin?
Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, and yeasts
Of the Staphylococcus species which one is coagulase positive? Negative?
What is coagulase and what does coagulase do?
S. epidermidis and others
An enzyme that coagulates plasma
What is the most common bacterial cause of acne?
What enzyme test could you do to differentiate between Staphylococci and Streptococci?
What is necrotizing fasciitis caused by or in response to?
What is the most common form of transmission for impetigo?
What genera of bacteria cause impetigo?
Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
S. pyogenes binds to plasminogen and secretes what enzyme that leads to tissue degradation by plasmin?
What is MRSA?
What specific line of drug resistance is it associated with?
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
What toxin produced by which bacteria causes scalded skin syndrome?
Exfoliative toxin by S. aureus
What infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus?
Meningitis, furacles and carbuncles, Impetigo, Scalded skin syndrome (SSS), but NOT acne
. What infections can be caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?
Necrotizing fasciitis, erysipelas, impetigo, scarlet fever, but NOT SSS
Know the details of Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome including which layers of the skin the splitting occurs between.
Assoc. with newborns and babies, exotoxin-mediated, bullous lesions, and skin splits within the epidermis
What virus is used in the smallpox vaccine?
What disease(s) does Varicella-zoster virus cause?
How does it enter humans?
Where does it go and become latent?
What is its reservoir?
Dorsal root ganglion of specific dermatomes
Will somebody who never had it get chicken pox if exposed to a person with shingles?
. Know all the details of HHV-6.
Not rare, starts with high fever, causes roseola in young/infants, mono-like disease in adults, and rash comes on the 4th day.
Which disease is associated with Koplik's spots?
Which is incorrect about the MMR immunization?
a. contains attenuated virus
b. contains toxoids
c. is given in early childhood
d. protects against three different viral diseases
e. None of the choices is correct.
ANSWER: b. contains toxoids
What else is measles called?
Which rash-causing viral infection can cross the placenta and cause serious fetal damage?
Fifth disease what causes it?
Signs/symptoms: Bright red rash on cheeks (slapped cheek) and how long can the rash last?
Vaccine for it?
Bright red rash on cheeks (Slapped cheek)
Days to weeks
Which is incorrect about warts?
a. caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV)
b. are transmitted by direct contact or fomites
c. include deep plantar warts on soles of the feet
d. are frequently cancerous
e. freezing and laser surgery can be used for removal
ANSWER: d. are frequently cancerous
What are the three forms of anthrax and which one involves a black eschar on the skin?
Pulmonary, GI, and cutaneous. Cutaneous causes black eschar on skin
Know all the ringworms and which species causes each body area infection
Tinea capitis (head), Tinea barbae (beard), etc!
What organisms can cause bacterial conjunctivitis?
How is it transmitted?
How is it treated?
Does it involve a clear discharge?
S. pyogenes, S. aureus, H. infuenzae, and N. gonorrhoeae.
Direct and Indirect contact
Broad system antibiotics
Usual cause of keratitis?
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
What is the only way to prevent conjunctivitis?
Where is Spinal fluid located?
Know the meninges and associates spaces in order.
I.e. Dura mater, arachnoid mater with sub arachnoid space, and pia mater
The CNS is "immunologically privileged" so what exactly does that mean about the immune response there?
Has a reduced immune response compared to the rest of the body
Which neuroglia acts as a phagocyte?
What is the blood-brain barrier and what does it do?
Brain defense that restricts substances from entering the brain via the vascular system
What are the normal biota of the CNS?
What causes meningococcemia (gram stain and morphology/arrangement)?
How is it best treated?
How does it begin?
What signs are it associated with?
N. meningititis which is gram neg. diplococcus
Vascular collapse, hemorrhage, and petichia
Know EVERYTHING about Neisseria meningitidis!
Virulence factors include capsule, pili, endotoxin, and IgA protease. Causes SERIOUS meningitis, human reservoir in nasopharynx, and easily transmitted in day care, dorms, military barracks.
What are the signs of meningitis?
Stiff neck, fever, headache, WBC in spinal fluid
Know all about Streptococcus pneumonia! Including antibiotics it responds well and poorly to
NOT WELL to penicillin. Most frequent case of community acquired meningitis, has polysaccharide capsule, makes alpha-hemolysin and hydrogen peroxide, and is a small flattened coccus in pairs.
What structure does H. influenza have that contributes to its virulence?
Each of the following is true for Listeria monocytogenes except
a. resistant to cold.
c. resistant to heat.
d. resistant to salt.
e. can result in septicemia.
ANSWER: b. fastidous
Which fungus found in bird droppings is common in AIDS patients where it causes meningitis?
How is neonatal meningitis most commonly transmitted?
What organism is the most common cause?
Exposure in birth canal
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)
Which of the following is not true of meningoencephalitis?
a. causative organisms are Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba
b. infections of both the brain and meninges
c. causative organisms are viruses
d. modes of transmission are direct contact and swimming in warm fresh water
e. treatment for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is mostly ineffective
ANSWER: c. causative organisms are viruses
Know the causative agents of acute encephalitis.
JC virus, West Nile, HSV, & California
Encephalitis is most commonly caused by what infectious agent? I mean virus, bacteria, or fungus.
How do we best protect against arboviruses?
Which of the following has the highest mortality rate?
a. Western equine encephalitis
b. St. Louis encephalitis
c. California encephalitis
d. Eastern equine encephalitis
e. West Nile encephalitis
ANSWER: d. Eastern equine encephalitis
Spongiform encephalopathies are?
a. associated with abnormal, transmissible, protein in the brain
b. chronic, fatal infections of the nervous system
c. caused by prions
d. Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, kuru, and Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
e. all of the choices are correct
ANSWER: e. all of the choices are correct
What is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with?
Know ALL about rabies! Including human incubation time.
A zoonotic disease. Associate with wild bats, skunks, raccoons, cats, and canines as reservoirs. Transmission involves bites, scratches, and inhalation. Human incubation is 1-2 months. Symptoms include anxiety, agitation, muscle spasms, convulsions, and paralysis. 52. What is the def
What is the definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii?
All of the following pertain to poliomyelitis except
a. summer outbreaks in the U.S. have been recently increasing.
b. transmitted primarily by fecal-contaminated water.
c. can be asymptomatic or mild with headache, sore throat, fever, and nausea.
d. if virus enters the central nervous system motor, neurons can be infected and destroyed.
e. caused by enterovirus.
ANSWER: a. summer outbreaks in the U.S. have been recently increasing.
Where does polio virus initially multiply?
What is the preferred preventative measure for polio in the U.S.?
inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) developed by Jonas Salk in 1954
Which Clostridium species makes a neurotoxin that binds spinal cord neuron sites that are responsible for inhibiting muscle contraction and therefore causes tetanic paralysis?
How to you get botulism and what kind of toxin causes it and what is the toxin named?
Food and a neurotoxin called botulinum
Which Clostridium species makes a neurotoxin that inhibits acetylcholine release and leads to flaccid paralysis?
How does tetanus differ from botulism?
In tetanus muscles can't relax and in botulism they can't contract
What is the sac that encloses the heart called?
What is viremia?
What type of organism usually causes septicemia?
Virus in blood
Growth and proliferation of bacteria in blood (can be fungi too)
All of the following are associated with subacute endocarditis except
a. occurs in patients that have prior heart damage.
b. caused by immune system autoantibodies that attack heart and valve tissue.
c. oral bacteria get introduced by dental procedures to the blood.
d. bacteria colonize previously damaged heart tissue resulting in a vegetation
ANSWER: b. caused by immune system autoantibodies that attack heart and valve tissue.
What are common causative agents of acute endocarditis?
S. aureus, S. pneumonia, S. pyogenes, and N. gonorrhaeoae
Know all the signs and symptoms of bubonic plague, the cause of it, how it is transmitted, and what it can progress to. E
Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes, fever, headache, nausea, weakness are symptoms. Cause is Yersinia pestis. Transmitted by rat flea. It can progress to septicemia.
What are all the forms of the plague?
Which is called black death?
How do you control the disease?
Bubonic, pneumonic, & septicemic
Which is not associated with tularemia?
a. a zoonosis
b. mammals are the chief reservoir
c. a gram-positive bacterium
d. symptoms include fever, swollen lymph nodes, ulcerative lesions, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia
e. sometimes called rabbit fever
ANSWER: c. a gram-positive bacterium
Causative agent of lyme disease?
What signs/symptoms are associated with it?
What is the vector?
What can it lead to if not treated soon enough?
Bullseye rash, erythema migrans, fever, and headache
Crippling arthritis, cardiovascular and neurological issues.
Epstein-Barr virus has the following characteristics except it
a. is more commonly found in adults.
b. is transmitted by direct oral contact and saliva.
c. produces sudden leukocytosis.
d. has a 30-50 day incubation.
e. can be transmitted by contaminated blood transfusions and organ transplants.
ANSWER: a. is more commonly found in adults
symptoms of infectious mononucleosis
sore throat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly.
Yellow fever and dengue fever are
A. caused by arboviruses.
B. caused by viruses that disrupt capillaries and blood clotting.
D. transmitted by a mosquito vector.
E. All of the choices are correct.
ANSWER: E. All of the choices are correct.
Know ALL about brucellosis! Including what can be done to milk to prevent it.
Pasteurization can prevent it. It is a zoonosis with a fluctuating fever, headache, muscle pain, and weakness. Also called undulant fever.
What organism is associated with cat bites and scratches?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
a. is seen in highest numbers along the west coast.
b. is transmitted by Ixodes ticks.
c. symptoms include fever, headache, and rash.
d. never has severe complications.
e. All of the choices are correct.
ANSWER: c. symptoms include fever, headache, and rash.
Which of the following is mismatched?
a. Yersinia pestis - plague
b. Coxiella burnetii - Q fever
c. Bartonella quintana - trench fever
d. Bartonella henselae - cat-scratch disease
e. Rickettsia typhi - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
ANSWER: e. Rickettsia typhi - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
What are the symptoms that cycle every 48-72 hours in malaria patients?
Know the life cycle of malaria! Which form is in which host and location in host especially!
Chills, fever, and sweating How can you prevent malaria? Bed nets, insecticides, no standing water, prophylactic drugs.
Merozoites form AFTER sporozoites enter liver. See figure in text.
Characteristics of Bacillus anthracis include all the following except
a. capsule and exotoxins are virulence factors.
b. a one-time vaccine provides lifelong immunity.
c. reservoir includes infected grazing animals and contaminated soil.
d. gram-positive bacillus.
e. spore former.
ANSWER: b. a one-time vaccine provides lifelong immunity.
Preferred treatment for anthrax?
All of the following pertain to patients with AIDS except they
a. have an immunodeficiency.
b. have CD4 T-cell titers below 200 cells/mm3 of blood. c. get repeated, life-threatening opportunistic infections.
d. can get unusual cancers and neurological disorders. e. have the highest number of cases worldwide in the United States.
ANSWER: e. have the highest number of cases worldwide in the United States.
How is HIV transmitted?
Unprotected sex, blood and blood product contact.
A frequent cancer that is seen in AIDS patients is?
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