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Terms in this set (20)
A lasting change in behavior or mental processes that results from experience
A difference in thinking, or behavior because of an experience
If you discover that it rains when the sky is gray then you bring a raincoat, that is learning.
Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus
Lessening a response to a repetitive stimulus
If you stop hearing a train near your house, you are becoming habituated.
A form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus
A change in response between a neutral stimulus and a natural response to a stimulus
When a light is flashed before a food is presented the person is using classical conditioning.
The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
The beginning of learning during which the organism is taught a connection between the neutral and unconditioned stimulus.
At the beginning when the person is just showing the light with the food.
Extinction (in classical conditioning)
The weakening of a conditioning response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
When a response goes away because of no stimulus
If the person training the dog to salivate at the sight of a light stopped putting the food with the light the response would stop, or become extinct.
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay
A random reoccurrence of a response that had previously been extinguished.
If a dog was taught to salivate at the sight of a light and this behavior had already become extinct and one day the dog saw a light and salivated, this would be spontaneous recovery
The extension of a learned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
Taking a conditioned response and connecting it to similar things to the conditioned stimulus
For example, Little Albert's fear of rats extended to other hairy animals and other things with hair.
A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination learning task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli
The confused reaction when an organism can't distinguish between two stimulus
When a person can't decide what your parents want like if their face is blank, you start to freak out because you don't know what you want
An observable, voluntary behavior that an organism emits to "operate" on, or have an effect on, the environment
A behavior an organism performs to control/change their environment
For example if a person studies for a test, that is an operant behavior
A form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences-that is, but the stimuli that follow the response
A type of learning dependent on the responses usefulness/consequences to the situation
When a rat only attributes flavoured water with sickness is operant conditioning because they only attributed the water to the sickness
Law of effect
The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or "stamped" into the organism.
The idea that good results to an action would be ingrained into an organism.
The rat will always remember the effect of the color water on them.
A condition (involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response
When the stimulus is added or removed because of a response, strengthening the response
If a dog is being trained to salivate to the light the light is the reinforcer
A stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again
A way of encouraging a response by presenting a stimulus after a correct response
Praise after a good behavior would be positive reinforcement
The removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior. Compare with punishment
A way of encouraging a behaviour by taking way an undesirable stimulus when a response is performed
A mom stopping nagging when you clean your room is negative reinforcement
An operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar
to the desired response
Teaching a certain response by reinforcing similar behaviours.
When the experimenters began to put the poison in the coloured water so that the rats associate the sickness with the water
A aversive stimulus which, occurring after a response, diminishes the strength of that response
A way of discouraging a behavior by adding a bad stimulus because of a behavior.
When a child is grounded from electronics if uses his cell phone is a form of punishment (negative punishment)
The concept, developed by David Premack, that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
The belief that a positive activity can be used to reinforce a negative activity.
The application of an aversive stimulus after a response
Giving a stimulus to stop a response even if its not negative.
If a child receives a spanking for hitting his sibling this is positive punishment
A form of cognitive learning, originally described by the Gestalt psychologists, in which problem
solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganisation of perceptions
A way of problem solving which is caused by seeing a problem in a new way.
When the monkeys used multiple boxes and sticks to reach the bananas that is insight learning
A form of cognitive learning in which new response are acquired after watching others' behavior and the
consequences of their behavior
A way of learning by watching others and watching the consequences.
If a child see his parents yelling at each other the child learns to yell at his parents and maybe other people.
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