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Terms in this set (41)
Definition? Found? What do most people believe in?
Definition: refers to the values and patterns of thinking that a country's citizens share regarding politics
Found: Constitution, writings of the founders, laws, and court rulings (it has evolved through the country's history)
Americans overall agree regarding the shared values that make up political culture. Various interpretations have led to divergent ideas about the role of government.
What are the five parts that political culture is divided into?
b) equality of opportunity
c) free enterprise
d) rule of law
e) limited government
Political Culture: Individualism
1) Where is personal freedoms protected?
2)What must be balanced in order to ensue order and stability?
3) What is the purpose of B of R?
1) The Am. ideal of protecting personal freedoms from gov interference is evident in the way the B of R safeguards civil liberties
2) The value of individualism and sanctity of personal rights must be balanced with the responsibility of gov to ensure order and stability
3) B of R stresses that the purpose of gov is to ensure indiv (natural) rights and that gov that fails to protect these rights may be abolished
Political Culture: Equality of Opportunity
1) What is equality of opportunity?
2) Which federal documents can you find equality of opportunity?
1) Am share belief in equality of opp that all indiv should have the ability to compete on a level playing field where success is determined by hard work and talent
2) Equality of opp is present in the Constitution and key leg, including the Civil Rights Act and the Am with Disabilities Act
Equality of opportunity vs Equality of outcome (definition?)
Equality of opportunity: all persons have the same ability to compete and succeed
Equality of outcome: idea that all persons should be assured basic minimums for human existence and society should strive to reduce gross inequalities
Political Culture: Free Enterprise
1) What is free enterprise?
2) How does fed gov use regulation to manipulate companies?
3) Where is the right of citizens to own property free of gov interference seen?
1) It is an economic system in which private business operates for the most part independently of gov control and involves the private ownership of property, is often associated with laissez-faire economics
2)Free enterprise is a mixed economy. Am differ in their opinions about how much gov regulation is needed. The fed gov uses regulation to force companies to obey standards for the protection of citizens, but its control of business and industry is limited.
3)The right of citizens to own property free of gov interference is most clearly seen in the Due Process Clauses of the 5th and 14th Amend, which prohibit the taking of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law, Property rights may also be affected by the gov power of eminent domain, 5th amed, which allows the gov to take private property for money
Political Culture: Rule of Law
1) What is rule of law?
2) How are people treated in the eyes of the law? Where in the B of R is it found? What are all people accused of a crime granted?
3) ___ is used to remove president and federal judges from office when they violate the rule of law.
4) What does Madison state in Fed 51 about the rule of law?
1) It is the Am political value requiring that all indiv, includ leaders, be held accountable to the same laws. Idea all laws applied to everyone.
2) It include the value that all indivs are treated the same in the eyes of courts. B of R 5th, 6th, and 8th. All indivs accused of a crime are granted due process and equal protection under the law
3) Con provides for a methods in which gov officials, includ pres and fed judges, may be impeached and removed from office for violating the rule of law
4) Fed 51. Madison stated that the rule of law is the ultimate aim of gov: Justice is the end goal of gov and civil society.
Political Culture: Limited Government
1) What is limited government?
2) In Fed 51, what does Madison argue that prevents one branch of government from becoming too powerful?
3) In Fed 78, what does Hamilton argued that restricts the power of other branches and safeguards indiv rights?
1. Am pol value of limited gov is expressed in the Con, which restricted both the gov and its leaders by carefully enumerating the pow of gov, the pow denied to the gov, and the rights of the ppl.
2) Fed 51. Madison argued that the system of checks and balances created by the con prevented any one branch of gov form becoming too powerful, thus limiting the authority of the gov. Controls the abuses of gov.
3) Fed No 78. Hamilton argued that the indep courts by the Con restrict the pwr of the other branches and safeguard of indiv rights.
--> indep of courts of justice is essential in a limited constitution which contains certain specified expectations to te leg authority; no bills of attainder, no ex post facto laws, and the like
A) Shaping political attitudes and values: ___,___, and ____related to the government is known as political socialization
The complicated manner in which an indiv's sense of political identity, political party affiliation, and values related to gov and shaped by the broader culture, is known as political socialization
What factors shape political attitudes and values?
family and peers, educational influences, social environments/organizational membership, globalization, generational, life-cycle, major political events, and media
To shape political attitudes and values: Family and Peer Influences
a) Friends and family? How do they shape one's political views?
Influences their children's ideology and impacts attitude development. Individuals with like-minded friends, their shared attitudes may be amplified. Friends aren't as strong influencers
To shape political attitudes and values: Educational influences
a) what does more education lead to?
More education= increases political efficacy and more likely to vote
To shape political attitudes and values: Social Environments/ Organizational Membership
What are the top three things that influence your political views?
Social groups, religious groups, and where you live influence your political views
To shape political attitudes and values: Globalization
1) What/ who impacts Am pol values?
2) Which act in 2010 was influenced by other countries?
3) What bridges cultures and nations throughout the world?
1) Am pol values are impacted by other nations
2) Affordable Care Act in 2010 was influence by other countries
3)Social media developed in U.S. now bridge cultures and nations throughout the world
To shape political attitudes and values: Generational, Life-cycle, and Major Political Events
1) Ppl born in the same time period share the same attitudes toward ___ and ___ policy
2) What is a life cycle?
3) What are some examples of major political events that shape generations?
1) Ppl born in the same time period shared experiences that shape long-lasting attitudes toward domestic and foreign policy. Ex. Gen Z attitudes toward gun violence
2) Life cycle--changing personal circumstances that occur across the life span-- factor in pol socialization. Stage of life influences your behavior.
3) Major Political Events like 9/11 and Kennedy Assassination affect all persons who experience them across the generational spectrum
To shape political attitudes and values: Media Influences
1) What does media influence?
2) What is echo- chamber?
1) Media influences pubic opinion related to policy and trust in gov. Shapes ppl attitudes about gov institutions.
2) Expansion of pol coverage in media have allowed indivs to choose to receive information from sources that share their own political perspective, thereby reinforcing their pre-existing perceptions and limiting new information. This is known as an "echo chamber"
a) Gov important?
c) Should gov refrain from regulating moral issues in most cases?
d) What should gov spend money on?
e) Democratic or republican party?
a) gov has an imp role in society
b) gov should regulate the econ in order to ensure that efficacy is maximized and noneconomic interests are protects
c) gov should refrain from regulating moral issues in most cases.
d) gov should spend money to assist citizens with social services (housing, food, and healthcare)
e) Democratic party
a) Gov important?
c) Should gov refrain from regulating moral issues in most cases?
d) What should gov refrain from spending money on?
e) Democratic or republican party?
a) gov plays minimum role in society
b) gov should engage in minimal regulation of the economy; market forces maximize efficiency and solve most problems
c) gov has an important role to play in regulating moral issues. The gov should regul moral issues to uphold traditional moral beliefs
d) gov funding of social goods should be limited. Citizens shouldn't be restrained and should be expected to provide for themselves
e) Republican Party
Liberal vs. Conservative: Economy
-increased gov reg of business to protect workers and the environment
-markets need reg to function
-favors taxation of businesses and the wealthy to support spending on public goods
-gov should minimally reg the ec
-market forces operate to produce efficiency and productivity in markets
- favors reduced taxation of businesses and the wealthy to stimulate the economy
Liberal vs. Conservative: Federalism
Liberal: favors federal power
Conservative: favors states' rights
Liberal vs. Conservative: Nation Security
-favors reducing military spending
-supports involvement in global affairs, diplomacy, and foreign aid
-favors increasing military spending
-supports limitations of foreign aid, limited involvement with foreign nations, and military education
Liberal vs. Conservative: Social Welfare Programs
-increased finding of social welfare programs
-reduced funding of social welfare programs
Liberal vs. Conservative: Education
-increased funding of public education
-vouchers and support for private and religious education
Liberal vs. Conservative: Immigration
-supports legal immigration and citizenship path for certain groups of undocumented immigrants
-reduced legal immigration and opposes citizenship path for undocumented immigrants
Liberal vs. Conservative: Abortion Rights
-favors abortion rights
Liberal vs. Conservative: Civil Rights
-favors expanded civil rights protections
-favors affirmative action
-favors limited civil rights protections
-opposes affirmative action
Liberal vs. Conservative: Environmental Protection
-favors regulations to protect the environment and combat climate change
-opposes government action to regulate business
- views climate change as an insignificant problem
Liberal vs. Conservative: Gun Control
-favors restrictions on gun purchases and ownership
-opposes restrictions on gun purchases and ownership
Liberal vs. Conservative: Healthcare
-supports expanded access and government involvement in healthcare
-favors private sector, free market healthcare system with minimal gov involv
broadly shared set of politcial values, beliefs, and norms held within a society
is the process by which individuals within a society acquire their political values and opinions. Agents of socialization includes family, education, and the media
the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
1) Conservative or liberal?
2) What are L.I's views on economy? Why should the gov exist?
3) Lib are consistent with their view of the ___ ____ of ___in____ ___
a)Should the market function freely or be constrained according to the decisions of its participants?
b)What topics should the gov interfere with?
1) Share both lib and conser ideologies
2) L.I. opposes gov reg of ec activity and personal choices. Lib, indiv liberty is the highest value, and gov should exist only to protect private property rights
3) Lib are consistent in their view of the proper role of gov in society believing
a) gov shouldn't reg the ec, but allow the market to function freely according to the decisions of its participants
b) the gov shouldn't involve itself in ppl's personal decisions Gov interference in choices involving marriage, sex, drugs, gambling, and other issues is a violation of personal liberty
Political Culture and Public Policy: Liberty vs. Order
1) The debate b/w ____ and ___ reflects the tension b/w liberty and order, which must be balanced in order for society to function
a)excessive personal liberty will lead to _____
b) excessive social order will ____ personal liberty and creativity
2) What do political outcomes reflects?
3) Where is the changing power of various groups reflected?
1. The debate b/w conservatism and liberalism reflects the tension b/w liberty and order, which must be balanced in order for society to function optimally
a)excessive personal liberty will lead to chaos
b) excessive social order will stifle personal liberty and creativity
2. Policy outcomes reflect the preferences of whichever position is dominant among voters and policymakers at any given time
3. The changing power of various groups is often reflected in policy changes, as when alcohol prohibition was enacted and then repealed fourteen years later
Political Culture and Public Policy: The Culture War
1) What is culture war?
2) Who/ what drive enthusiasm and support for parties and causes, compared to political organizations?
3) U.S. politics may at times reflect ____
4) What does polarization cause?
1. Culture war describes the deep division and increasing polarization b/w those Am who wish to return to an idealized culture based on traditional values and those who favor change
2. Differing belief system are both exploited and exacerbated but political organizations, interest groups, and media outlets to drive enthusiasm and support for parties and causes
3. U.S. politics may at times reflect polarization, or the tendency for citizens to adopt more extreme positions
4. The polarization characteristics of the culture war creates political gridlock as fewer voters and politicians inhabit the middle of the political field
Ideological Differenced: The Role of Government in the Economy: The politics of the economy
1) The____ of the economy has historically been one of the most significant predictors of voter attitudes toward the party in the White House
2) Maintaining a strong ____ is a top priority for political parties
a) Politicians desire to keep ____ rates low. Why?
b) Politicians attempt to control inflation. What's inflation?
1) The health of the economy has historically been one of the most significant predictors of voter attitudes toward the party in the White House
2) Maintaining a strong economy is a top priority for political parties
a) Politicians desire to keep unemployment rates low. When unemployment is low, citizens have to spend money, which stimulates business activity and creates or jobs. It also reduces the cost of gov unemployment and social welfare programs
b) Politicians attempt to control inflation, which is the rate at which the cost of goods and services in an economy increases. Low inflation rate = healthy economy.
Ideological Differenced: The Role of Government in the Economy: Fiscal Policy
1) what' a fiscal party?
2) What is Keyensian theory based off of?
a) What happens when businesses sell fewer goods?
b)When will economic recession usually happen?
c) K's belief in gov's role in ec health?
d)Keynesian Economics form new deal legislation, which was enacted in response to the ____ ___, as well as the American recovery and reinvestment act of 2009, past and responds to the Great Recession.
e) Stimulus polices?
1.fiscal party refers to the taxing and spending methodology followed by the government in order to foster economic health.
2.Keynesian theory (develop economics John Maynard Keynes) is based on supply and demand in the economy
a) Services drops businesses sell fewer goods and services, and workers lose jobs.
b) When jobs are lost, spending contracts further, in an economic recession may result
c) Keynes believe that the government should actively intervene to maintain or restore economic health.
d) Keynesian Economics form new deal legislation, which was enacted in response to the Great Depression, as well as the American recovery and reinvestment act of 2009, past and responds to the Great Recession.
e) These types of policies are often referred to as a stimulus policies, because they are intended to stimulate the economy to sustain independent group.
Ideological Differenced: The Role of Government in the Economy: Fiscal Policy
3) What will stimulate job creation and ec growth according to Arthur Laffer?
a) What does the supply side theory about?
b)___ taxation in limiting government spending as a way to ____economic activity
c) Taxes on ___ ____ will stimulant government revenues
3. Supply side economic theory, popularized by economics Arthur laffer, education reduction of taxes, primarily on businesses and wealthy individuals, in order to stimulate business investment, which will stimulate job creation and economic growth
a) Supply side theory is sometimes called trickle down economics, because of theory proposes that leaving more wealth in the hands of those at the top of the economy and result in more wealth making its way down to the middle and working classes.
b) supply-side economics advocates reducing taxation in limiting government spending as a way to stimulate economic activity
c)supply siders theorize that because taxes on economic transactions stimulant government revenues, tax cuts will generate more revenue than is lost by reducing taxes.
Ideological Differenced: The Role of Government in the Economy: Monetary Policy
1) What is monetary policy?
2) The prices of goods and services are heavily influenced by...
3) What is the Federal Reserve System?
4) What are the two ways of money supply?
5) The ___ is charged with modulating the supply of money and economy and regulating banks in order to maintain economic stability in sustainable economic growth
1)another tool at the disposal of the government for maintaining the health of the economy is monetary policy, which is ability to regulate them out of money available in the economy.
2)The prices of goods and services are heavily influenced by how much money is available within a society. The more dollars floating around in the economy, the easier they are to come by, and the less each one will buy.
3)the Federal Reserve System is a central banking system of the United States and the vehicle through which the government controls the five money in circulation.
a) The Federal Reserve System consists of 12 regional Federal Reserve banks through which money is distributed to financial institutions and a Federal Reserve board of seven members appointed by this president with the Senate confirmation to stagger terms.
b)the Fed controls the money supply by:
-->setting interest rates for government bonds.
-->buying and selling government bonds and other financial instruments with member banks. Bond purchases from banks put money into the economy; Bond sales to banks reduced the amount of money banks have available to lend.
-->setting the federal funds rate, which requires banks to keep a minimum percentage of deposits on hand in cash. Increasing the reserve rate reduces the money available to lend, or reducing the rate increases the money supply.
-->setting the rates at which banks be borrowed directly from the government and they charge each other for funds.
4)The money supply tiny in two primary ways
a)increasing the amount of money available to banks to sell as long put more money into the economy, which stimulates spending and growth
b)reducing the money supply slows the economy and checks inflation
5)The Fed is charged with modulating the supply of money and economy and regulating banks in order to maintain economic stability in sustainable economic growth
--impacts economy through adjusting in taxation and spending
-initiated by Congress
-impacts economy through adjustments in interest rates and the money supply
--implemented by the Federal Reserve Board
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