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104 terms

pharm and toxicology

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Antidote to insecticides (2)
Atropine (for sx)
Pralidoxime (for restoring AChE)
MOA of insecticide poisoning; specific drug example
AChE inhibition by organophosphates; parathion
Used to diagnose asthma; challenge test
Methacholine
Direct cholinomimetics for glaucoma (2)
Pilocarpine
Carbachol
Indirect cholinomimetics for glaucoma (2)
Echothiaphate
Physostigmine
Antidote for atropine overdose
Physostigmine
Cholinomimetic for diagnosis of MG
Edrophonium (tensilon test)
Indirect cholinomimetic for post-operative and neurogenic ileus, and urinary retention
Neostigmine
Direct cholinomimetic for post-operative and neurogenic ileus, and urinary retention
Bethanechol
2 drugs for MG (indirect cholinomimetics) + 1 other drug
Neostigmine
Pyridostigmine
Steroids
(Starring at New Pyramids -"effect of diplopia in MG")
Alzheimer's cholinomimetics (3)
Donepezil
Galantamine
Rivastigmine
Drug for motion sickness (muscarinic/antimuscarinic?)
Scopolamine (antimuscarinic)
Antimuscarinic for Parkinson's disease
Benztropine (park my benz)
Drug in eye drops to cause dilation (muscarinic/antimucarinic?)
Atropine; antimuscarinic
Antimuscarinic used for asthma
Ipratropium
Antimuscarinics used to reduce gastric acid production (peptic ulcer treatment)
Methscopolamine
Propantheline
Use of oxybutynin
Reduces urgency in mild cystitis; reduced bladder spasms
Atropine can be used in dementia (true/false?)
False. Will cause delirium
Atropine can be used if there's a GI obstruction (true/false?)
False. Will cause worse ileus
Atropine should not be used in kids with fever (true/false?)
True. Causes hyperthermia by itself
Atropine can cause flushing of the skin (true/false?)
True
Atropine should not be used in BPH (true/false?)
True. Will exacerbate urinary retention
Experimental ganglionic blocker
Hexamethonium
Drug blocking Ach synthesis and progression into vesicles
Vesamicol
Drug blocking choline entry into nerves to produce ACh
Hemicholinium
Drug blocking Dopa production from tyrosine
Metyrosine
Drug blocking NE production and packaging into vesicles from dopamine
Reserpine
3 drugs blocking reuptake of NE
Tricyclic anti-depressants
Cocaine
Amphetamines
3 drugs increasing release of NE from vesicles
Amphetamines
Ephedrine
Tyramine
Drug blocking release of NE from vesicles
Guanethidine
Better for heart stimulation (epinephrine/norepinephrine?)
Epinephrine (stimulates β receptors first, but also stimulate α); Norepinephrine stimulates α receptors more than β
Used more for septic shock (epinephrine/norepinephrine?)
Norepinephrine; reverses vasodilation without affecting heart too much
Function of D1 receptors
Relaxes muscles of renal vasculature -> ↑ renal perfusion (theoretically)
Effect of epinephrine of renal perfusion
Good sympathomimetic against cardiogenic shock
Dobutamine (stimulates β1 more than β2)
Dopamine only has effects on other receptors, apart from the D1 and D2 receptors (true/false?)
True. Activates β (more) and α receptors too, so inotropic and chronotropic
2 sympathomimetics for acute asthma (SABAs); selectively β2 agonists
Albuterol
Metaproterenol
Sympathomimetic used for narcolepsy
Amphetamine
2-in-one effect of cocaine vs. lidocaine use
Vasoconstricts as well as anesthetizes (no need for epinephrine, like with lidocaine)
Effect of norepinephrine on heart rate
↓ due to reflex bradycardia
MAO and use of α-methyldopa
α2-agonists (centrally acting)
Good for preeclampsia
Condition in which clonidine is especially useful
Renal disease with HTN
Norepinephrine has no β2 effect (true/false?)
True
4 groups of sx for β-blockers
CNS (sedation, sleep alteration) -> clouds hypoglycemic sx
Impotence
Cardiac (AV block, bradycardia)
Exacerbation of asthma
The 2 especially cardioprotective β-blockers
Carvedilol
Metoprolol
The 2 non-selective β and α-antagonists
Labetalol
Carvedilol
The 5 β1-selective antagonists
Atenolol
Betaxolol
Esmolol
Acebutolol
Metoprolol
(A BEAM)
2 α-blockers used for pheochromocytomas
Phentolamine
Phenoxybenzamine
Use α-blockers with β-blockers for pheochromocytomas (true/false?)
True, to combat both effects by epinephrine, BUT use α-blockers first to prevent ↑ blood pressure caused by β-blocking first (vasodilation is knocked out)
Irreversible α-blocker (phentolamine/phenoxybenzamine?)
Phenoxybenzamine
Drug used for depression with insomnia and low appetite
Mirtazapine. S/E are sedation and ↑ appetite
Antidote for acetaminophen
N-acetylcysteine
Antidote for salicylates
Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to alkalinize (or dialysis)
Antidote for amphetamines
Ammonium (chloride) to acidify
Antidote for antimuscarinics (e. g. atropine)
Physostigmine
Antidote for β-blockers
Glucagon
Antidote treatments for digitalis (4)
Anti-dig Fab fragments
Mg2+
Lidocaine
Normalize K+
Antidote for iron
Deferoxamine (iron defers to ~)
Antidote for copper
Penicillamine
Antidote for gold (2)
Penicillamine or dimercaprol
Antidote for arsenic (2)
Dimercaprol or penicillamine
Antidote for mercury
Dimercaprol
Antidote for lead (3)
Dimercaprol
Penicillamine
EDTA
2 antidote treatments for cyanide
Nitrite (for methemoglobin production) -> thiosulfate (for excretion)
Hydroxocobalamin
Antidote for methemoglobin (2)
Methylene blue
Vitamin C (antioxidant)
Antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning
100% oxygen
2 antidote drugs for methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication
Ethanol
Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)
Antidote for opioids
Naloxone/naltrexone
Antidote for benzodiazepines
Flumazenil
Antidote for TCAs
Bicarbonate (alkalinization)
Antidote for heparin
Protamine (binds heparin)
Antidote for warfarin (2)
Vitamin K (slow)
Fresh-frozen plasma (fast)
Antidote for tPA or streptokinase
Aminocaproic acid
Antidote for theophylline
β-blockers
Antidote for cyclophosphamide
Mesna
Serotonin antagonist
Ondansetron (anti-emetic)
Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
Dexrasoxane
Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity
Amifostine
5-FU overdose
Thymidine
Methotrexate overdose
Leucovorin
Pyridostigmine toxicity (for MG)
Scopolamine
Antidote for cyclosporin nephrotoxicity
Mannitol diuresis
Antidote for serotonin syndrome
Cyproheptadine (serotonin antagonist)
Antidote for neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Dantrolene
2 drugs causing coronary vasospasm
Sumatriptan
Cocaine
A drug causing positive Coombs test (hemolytic anemia)
Methyldopa
Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency patients (6)
Ibuprofen
Sulfonamines
Primaquine
Aspirin
Isoniazid
Nitrofurantoin
(Hemolysis IS PAIN!)
3 drugs causing megaloblastic anemia
Phenytoin
MTX
Sulfa drugs
(Having a blast with PMS)
3 drugs causing pulmonary fibrosis
Bleomycin
Bulsulfan
Amiodarone
Drug group causing acute cholestatic hepatitis
Macrolides
2 main culprits for pseudomembranous colitis
Clindamycin
Ampicillin
Drug causing Fanconi's syndrome
Expired tetracycline
Serious S/E of valproic acid
Hepatic necrosis
Serious S/E of halothanes
Hepatic necrosis
Drugs causing gynecomastia (5)
Spironolactone
Digitalis
Cimetidine
Alcohol (chronic)
Ketoconazole
(Some drugs create awesome knockers)
2 drugs causing hot flashes
Clomiphene
Tamoxifen
2 drugs causing hypothyroidism
Lithium
Amiodarone
Drug causing cinchonism
Quinine/quinidine
2 drugs causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Demeclocycline
Lithium
Drug group potentially causing tardive dyskinesia
Neuroleptics
3 drugs potentially causing seizures
Bupropion
Isoniazid
Imipemen (w/ cilastatin)
Drugs causing Parkinsonian sx
Chlorpromazine
Metoclopramide
Haloperidol
Reserpine
2 drugs causing osteoporosis
Corticosteroids
Heparin
Drugs causing Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Allopurinol
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Lamotrigine
Ethosuximide
Carbamazepine
Sulfa drugs
Penicillin
(Allot some Phen-Phen to the Lambs. Ethically, Carbs are like Sulfa in my Pen)