46 terms

Science Ecology Test Ch. 1, 2.1, 2.3, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2

chapters 1, 2.1, 2.3, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2 in a 6th grade science test
STUDY
PLAY
Mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Parasitism
a symbiotic relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is harmed
Abiotic
nonliving
Biotic
living
Photosynthesis
the production of energy rich molecules from light energy
Biosphere
the part of earth that supports life. it includes the top portion of earths crust, all the water on earths surface, and the atmosphere that surrounds earth.
Ecosystem
all the living organisms in an area and all the nonliving things in their environment
Ecology
the study of organisms and how they interact with their environment. ecologists are the scientists that study this.
Population
all the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species
Community
all the populations in an ecosystem
Competition
when two or more organisms seek the same resource at the same time. limits population size. most intense between organisms of the same species. also between different species.
Population Size
the size of a population. measured by population counts. trap-mark-release method is a method where you capture an organism, mark it, and release it and continue the process. sample count method is a rough estimate of how many organisms you have in a large area.
Limiting Factors
factors of an ecosystem that limit the population growth of a species. these include: living space, food amounts, organisms eating other organisms, mates,
Carrying Capacity
the largest number of individuals of one species an ecosystem can support over time
Biotic Potential
the highest rate of reproduction, under ideal conditions, of a population.
Exponential Growth
the larger a population becomes, the faster it grows
Producers
organisms that use outer energy to create energy-rich molecules
Consumers
organisms that can't create their own energy-rich molecules. they eat other organisms to gain energy.
Herbivores
organisms that eat plants
Omnivores
organisms that eat meat and plants
Carnivores
organisms that eat meat
Decomposers
organisms the help recycle once-living matter by breaking it down into simple, energy-rich substances
Food Chain
a way of showing how matter and energy move from one organism to another
Symbiosis
any close relationship between species. its is also a symbiotic relationship.
Commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected
Niche
an organism's way of living
Predator
a consumer that captures and eats other consumers
Prey
an organism captured by the predator
Cooperation
two or more organisms working together to improve survival
Atmosphere
the air that surrounds earth
Soil
a mixture of mineral and rocks particles, the remains of dead organisms, water, and air. it is the topmost layer of earths crust. it's considered biotic and abiotic because it contains living and nonliving things inside
Sunlight
the energy source for almost all life on earth
Climate
an area's average weather conditions over time, including temperatures, rainfall or other precipitation, and wind. it helps determines the types of organisms that live there.
Chemosynthesis
the production of energy-rich nutrient molecules from chemicals
Hydrothermal Vent
a deep crack in the ocean floor through which molten magma can escape
Food Webs
a model that shows all the possible feeding relationships among the organisms in a community. it is made up of many food chains.
Energy Pyramids
shows the amount of energy available at each feeding level in an ecosystem
Reduce
reducing your use of natural resources
Reuse
using an item again without sending it through any processes first
Recycle
sending an item through a process to make a new item out of the old one. glass, metal, paper, and plastic can go through this process.
Biodiversity
the variety of life in an ecosystem. the common measure of this is the number of species that live in an area. more organisms live in the natural version of this than in the unnatural version.
Extinct Species
a species that used to be living on earth but doesn't live anymore
Endangered Species
a species that is at risk of going extinct
Threatened Species
a species that is at risk of becoming endangered
Habitat Loss
when a habitat is destroyed for some reason. some reasons are: humans building things in the place of habitat and natural causes such as forest fire or tornadoes.
Conservation Biology
the study of methods for protecting biodiversity