Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Geol 225 first test
Terms in this set (213)
Early Greeks held the _______ view of the universe, believing that Earth was a sphere that stayed motionless at its center
appears to be a change in movement of the planet through the sky
Copernician system or heliocentric
who reconstructed the solar system with the sun at the center and the plaents orbiteing around it? He also used circles to rperesent the orbits of planets
Who's observations of the planets were far more precise than any made previously?
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
first to use a telescope to study the stars. He charted the movement of Jupiter's four largest moons, proving that Earth was not the center of all planetary motion
Sir Isaac Newton
demonstrated that the orbit of a planet is a result of planet's inertia (its tendency to move in a straight line) and the sun's gravitational attraction, which bends the planet's path into an elliptical orbit
"shooting stars" Piece of space rock burning up in Earth's atmosphere
a small body moving in the solar system that would become a meteor if it entered the earth's atmosphere.
Remains of meteoroids that strike the surface of Earth
three main sources of meteroids
debris, material from asteroid belt, or the remains of comets
Large rock that is orbiting the sun
"dirty snowballs" large balls of ice mixed with rock dust, water ice, and frozen gases
What are most asteroids shaped like?
ring of asteroids orbiting the sun
where is the asteroid belt
between mars and jupiter
what is vesta?
brightest asteroid in the sky, one of the four largest asteroids
largest object in the asteroid belt
Which of these statements is false?
ceres is the same size as earth
What is a space object called when it lands on earth?
How big is the Hoba Meterorite?
as big as a car
Which statement is true?
pieces of the asteroid vesta have landed on earth
Which statement is false?
pluto is in the asteroid belt
what do scientists think may have killed the dinosaurs?
impact of. a huge space object with earth
Which statement is true?
asteroids can be as small as cars or larger than mountains
difference between asteroid and meteror?
asteroid: smally rocky object that orbits the sun. Meteror: what happens when a small piece of an aseroid or comet (known as meteroid) burns up upon enters earth's surface
a region of the solar system believed to contain many comets, asteroids, and other small bodies made largely of ice.
16 what statement is false?
Most comets travel around the sun in perfect circles
What happens to a comet as it gets closer to the sun?
it forms long tails made of gas and dust
how longis a comet's tail?
Millions of miles long
Which statement is true?
Comets are colder the farther they get formt eh sun
What did the space probe Rosetta do?
studied and landed on a comet
What are Jovian planets made of?
ice and gas
Device that first proved that Earth rotates on its axis/ around the sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
tail of a comet
always points away from the sun and gas/dust is expelled from the comets nucleus and blown outward by radiation pressure and the solar wind
The bright streak of light we see as a meteoroid enters our atmosphere is caused by
frictional heating as the meteroid speeds through the gases of our atmosphere
meteror showers such as the persians in august are casued by
earth passing through the debris left behind by a comet as it moved through the inner solar system
astornomer think that they must come from?
small icy bodies in the extreme outer parts of the solar system that are disturbed into orbits that bring them closer to the sun
the main asteroid belt lies between the orbits of
mars and Jupiter
What are comets made of?
Rocky planets (rock and metal)
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
The gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
What body in our solar system is most like Mercury?
Venus was once referred to as "Earth's twin." How are these two planets similar? How do they differ from one another?
What surface features do Mars and Earth have in common?
Why are the largest volcanoes on Earth so much smaller than the largest ones on Mars?
What evidence suggests that Mars had an active hydrologic cycle in the past?
A region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and that contains small bodies made mostly of ice
A spherical region of comets that surrounds the solar system
comets that orbit close to the sun
The planets orbit in the same direction and at speeds proportional to their distance from the sun, with inner planets moving faster and outer planets moving more slowly
How was the solar system formed?
Many clouds of dust and gas were pulled together by gravity, which created an intense amount of heat. This lead to nuclear fusion, and the Sun was born. The rest of the dust and gas formed smaller masses, which would be attracted to and orbit the Sun.
Planetesimals collided to form protoplanets and protoplanets grew into planets
How did the moon form?
The Moon formed due to the impact of a Mars-sized protoplanet and the early earth
dominated by high-colored lunar highlands and darker lowlands
briefly describe how our moon formed and how the formation accounts for its low density compared to that of Earth
Mercury has a
thin atmosphere and a weak magnetic field
Mercury's smooth plains are similar to
big bang theory
Cosmological model that explains the sudden development of the universe through expansion from a hot, dense state.
Earth is how old?
4.6 billion years
universe is how old?
galaxies recede at speeds proportional to their distances from the observer
a redshift produced by the expansion of space itself (hubble discovered)
The change in frequency of a wave as its source moves in relation to an observer
What did the Big Bang theory predict that was finally confirmed years after it was formulated?
If the universe was originally hot beyond comparison, it should be possible to detect this radiation, which is called cosmic microwave background radiation.
what property does the universe possess that will determine it's final state?
Which view of the fate of the universe is currently favored?
the big chill
two major components of clean, dry air
Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21%
where weather takes place
earths shape is
The Chinese recorded every appearance of what comet?
What was seen as a bad omen and were. blamed for disasters like wars/plagues
golden age of astronomy was centered in
the early greeks thought that the shape of the sun and moon were
The first greek to propose a sun-centered/heliocentric universe was
Who presented a summary of greek astronomical knowledge and is credited with developing a 3-D model of an earth-centered system
the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars
Why did the ancients believe that celestial objects had some influence over the lives?
because their survival depended on seasonal change and they believed that if these heavenly objects could control the seasons, they could influence all Earthly events.
guest star or ghost star
a star that suddenly appears in the night sky- is a normal star, usually too faint to be visible, which increases its brightness as it explosively ejects gases from its surfaces, a phenomenon we call a nova or super nova
who discovered that the planets actually have elliptical orbits
The apparent shift of the stars is called ______ _______ and is used to measure distances to the nearest stars
keplers three laws
planetary orbits are ellipses rather than circles, law of equal areas, harmony of the worlds
Explain why Galileo's discovery of a rotating Sun supports the Copernican view of a Sun-centered universe.
He tracked the movement of sunspots and their rotation, supporting the idea that the planets rotate around the sun.
means solar distance
What data did Tycho Brahe collect that was useful to Johannes Kepler in his quest to describe planetary motion?
Tycho Brahe collected data that is the stellar parallax. It is used to measure distances to the nearest stars
the planets near the sun travel the
outiine the steps in the formation of our solar system according to the nebular theory
The sun and planets began to form in a rotating cloud of nebular gas and dust. These materials eventually clumped together with a hot protosun at the center and chunks of planetesimals rotating around it. Through repeated collisions, the planetesimals grew into protoplanets and eventually the solar system came about
Explain why the terrestrial planets have meager atmospheres compared to the Jovian planets
Terrestrial planets were formed in a region where it was too hot for ice and gas to condense but the Jovian planets formed in colder locations and are too small to exert the gravitation pull required to hold very light gases in their atmospheres
the moon has two diff types of terrain
dark lowlands and brighter/highly cratered highlands
the moons light-colored areas resemble earth's ______ ________
Compare and contrast the moon's maria and highlands
The maria are smooth basaltic plains, while the highlands are mountainous and contain many craters. Most maria are found on the near side of the moon and highlands are found on the far side of the moon. The maria are younger, while the highlands are much older. The maria are the darker regions, the highlands are the brighter regions of the moon
How is crater density used in the relative dating of the moon's surface features?
The greater the crater density, the longer the topographic feature must have existed
Summarize the major stages in the development of the modern lunar surface
Formation of the original crust, excavation of the large impact basins, filling of maria basins and formation of rayed craters
What other body in our solar system most resembles mercury?
What surface features does the moon and earth have in common?
playas, lake beds, sedimentary rock layers
the first experiment to give simple and direct evidence of the earth's rotation
central part of the universe
the tail of a comet
- Always points away from the sun
- Is gas and dust expelled from the comet's nucleus and blown outward by radiation pressure and the solar wind
The bright streak of light we see when a meteoroid enters our atmosphere is caused by
- Frictional heating as the meteoroid speeds through the gases of our atmosphere
Meteror showers such as the Perseidds in August are caused by
Earth passing through the debris left behind by a comet as it moved through the inner solar system
Astronomers think that most comes come from
- small icy bodies in the extreme outer parts of the Solar System that are disturbed into orbits that bring them closer to the Sun.
main asteroid belt lies between the orbits of
mars and jupiter
6.022 x 10^23
meteroites ar emamde of
metal and/or rocks
we never see the other side of the
composition is determined by
whats in it. gases formed planets out of dust
Does air pressure increase or decrease with an increase in altitude?
Is the outer edge of the atmosphere clearly defined? Explain.
why are temperatures in the thermosphere not strictly comparable to those experienced near Earth's surface?
Earth has two principle motions
rotation about its axisand its orbital motion areound the sun
imaginary line that runs through the poles
earth rotates on its axis once every
circle of illumination
the dividing line between day and night
it take how long for the earth to rotate around the sun
gradual change in the angle (altitutde) of the sun above the horizon is also a major contributing factor of
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data- well tested and widely accepted explanation that the scientific community agrees best fits certain observable facts
ask a question
define the ecliptic
The apparent path of the sun during the course of one year
The primary goal of Earth Science is
to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
According to the Ptolemaic (Greek) model of the universe, how many "heavenly" bodies could be observed wandering along the background of stars?
In the Ptolemaic (Greek) model of the universe, the stars are attached to the
When viewing the planets, Mars appears to move backwards, or retrograde, because
it is rotating around the sun slower than the earth's rotation
This scientist determined the nature of the forces that kept the planets in their orbits.
sir isaac newton
Almagest, the 13-volume astronomy treatise, was written by
This scientist determined that the planetary orbit was elliptical.
solar eclipses are more common than lunar eclipses
who discovered that the Sun has "blemishes," which we call sunspots.
The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
evidence of dark matter
observation that stars near the center or galaxies do not rotate as fast as expected
Based on the observed red shifts in the spectral lines of distant galaxies, astronomers conclude that ________.
universe is expanding
Hubble's law states that galaxies are receding from us at a speed that is proportional to their ________.
To determine whether a celestial body is approaching or receding from Earth, astronomers employ ________
the doppler principle
blue light has a ____ wavelength than red light
atmosphere is divided into four layers
Troposphere- Temperature decreases with increasing altitude.Stratosphere (ozone)- Temperature increases with altitude.Mesosphere (coldest)- Temperature decreases with increasing altitude.Thermosphere (hottest) - Temperature increases until it is unmeasurable.
question, hypothesis, test/experiment, theory
formed when magma cools beneath Earth's surface or when lava cools at Earth's surface; forms in or around volcanoes; requires heat (granite)
rock that forms when sediments such as muds, sands, or gravels are compressed by overlying sediments
Made when heat, pressure, or fluids change one type of rock into another type of rock
Igneous rocks that form when lava cools on Earth's surface. They contain small mineral grains or crystals because they cool quickly.
Igneous rocks that form as magma cools underground
asteroids are in the asteroid belt between
mars and jupiter
an area in the solar system beyond the planets where many small, icy bodies are located
what is science?
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
not necessarily an explosion, but expands outwards
- large meteorite crater partially on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico
- it was formed by the meteorite that probably played a major role in the extinction of 50% of earth's known species (including the dinosaurs) at the end of the Cretaceous Period - 65 million years ago
precipitation, condensation, evaporation
levels of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere,
which way do hurricanes spin?
what can increase flooding?
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
do we see the other side of the moon?
earth is how old
4.2 billion years
universe is how old
mile radius around the world
Any naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the earth's crust as a crystalline solid.
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
continental drift proposed by
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
San Andreas Fault
A major geological fault in California formed by a sliding transform boundary
waegner proposed that a supercontinent (Pangaea) once existed and he proposed that this supercontinent began to
fragment into smalelr landmasses (drift away from their positions over millions of years)
fosssils matching across the seas, rock types, ancietn climates
What was the first line of evidence that led early investigators to suspect that the continents were once connected?
When better world maps became available, people started to notice that continents, such as South America and Africa fit together like a puzzle.
The crust plus the upper mantle, the coolest
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats. hotter, weaker in the mantle
3 types of plate boundaries
divergent, convergent, transform
Earth is directly between the moon and the sun
moon is directly between the sun and Earth.
an eclipse in which the whole of the disk of the sun or moon is obscured.
dark colored, smooth resembling seas on earth
highlands of moon
bright colored, resemble earth's continents
moon's maria and highlands in common
both resulting in "face" or the "man of the moon"
What body in our solar system is most like Mercury?
Jupiter's Great Red Spot
A storm twice as wide as Earth and has existed for at least 3 Centuries
where do comets reside?
Oort cloud and Kuiper belt (comets that orbit close to the sun eventually vaporize)
Why was Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet?
It did not meet the three criteria IAU uses to define a full-sized planet.
what phase is the moon during solar eclipse? lunar eclipse?
new moon, full moon
when does the moon appear farther north to us?
First explained mechanism for earthquakes
ground shaking caused by the sudden and rapid movement of one block of rock slipping past another along fractures in Earth's crust (call faults)
- large earthquakes release huge amounts of stored-up energy as seismic waves; the energy carried by these waves causes the material that transmits them to shake
earthquakes occur along
Also known as the focus; spot where earthquake waves originate; usually occurs on a fault plane; waves expand outward from the focus
which fault produces the most destructive earthquakes
the pulling of a tectonic plate as its edge subducts deep into the mantle (contributes more to plate motion)
requirements to be a mineral
solid, inorganic, naturally occuring, crystalline structure, specific chemical
what is a mineral's streak
the color of the mineral in powdered form
how old is earth
4.6 billion years old
hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions
a _____ rock subjected to intense heat and pressure will become a ______ rock
San Andreas fualt in cali
good example of a transform plate boundary
The ________ was created when Pangaea broke apart
the _____ is earth's outermost rocky layer that is broken into plates
first type of seismic wave to arrive at a recording station?
I am a rock that forms the crystallization of lava or magma
I am rock that forms as a result of weathering of particles into loose sediment that is later lithified.
Metamorphic rock can be transformed from one rock to another by adding ..
heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids
magma at the surface
size of mineral crystals is determined by
rate of cooling
Formation of __________________:-Cooling occurs more slowly inside the earth than at the surface-Intrusive igneous rocks form inside the earth
Formation of ___________________:-Cooling occurs more quickly on the surface of the earth than inside.-Extrusive igneous rocks form outside the earth/ above the surface
What evidence said that Continents appeared to fit together like a puzzle piece?
fit of the continent
When two continental blocks collide it results in
What is the term for stored up energy released by earthquakes?
which type of wave is the most destructive?
Other Quizlet sets
Test Your Knowledge: Chap 11 Assessment
Hematology and oncology
PHRM 203: 2.4 Diuretics and Antilipidemics