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Chapter 7 - Cardiovascular System
Terms in this set (45)
What are the components that make up blood?
- red blood cells
What are platelets? Where do they derive from?
cell fragments derived from Megakaryocytes
- important in blood clotting
Basic mechanism of Coagulation Cascade?
- platelets recruit clotting factors, which convert prothrombin to thrombin
- thrombin then converts fibrinogen to fibrin, which forms mesh-like trap for clotting
What is the Hematocrit?
percentage of blood volume taken up by the red blood cells
Where are Erythrocytes produced?
What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?
Hormone released by the kidneys, which stimulates production of Red Blood Cells
Why do red blood cells have no nucleus?
To maximize the surface area so that they can efficiently carry O2
What does it mean for a person to have Blood Type O?
- No antigens on the surface of RBCs → universal donor
- Has anti-A and anti-B antigens → can only receive Type O blood
What anti-antigens do blood type A produce?
Person w/ blood type A has A antigens (glycoproteins) on surface of RBCs & produces anti-B antigens
What is the Rh factor?
another antigen on surface of RBCs.
Presence of Rh = denoted as +
Absence of Rh = denoted as -
What might happen if the mother carries Rh- factor but her fetus carries Rh+ factor?
Mother (Rh-) produces antibodies that attack Rh+ antigens, can attack fetus RBCs
What is the difference between Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation?
Systemic Circulation - blood pumped from heart to deliver O2 to tissues
Pulmonary Circulation - deoxygenated blood is carried to the lungs to pick up O2
What are Arteries?
- Carries blood AWAY from the heart
- have thick muscular walls
- vasodilation of arteries that carry blood to skeletal muscles
- vasoconstriction of arteries that carry blood to our digestive tract
What are Capillaries?
Thin network of blood vessels at tissues; one-cell thick in order to maximize surface area for nutrient/waste/gas exchange
- so many of them → total Cross-Sectional area is LARGEST of all the blood vessels
Flow rate and pressure of blood when it flows through the capillaries?
Blood flows slowly through capillaries to maximize nutrient/gas exchange
- because capillaries have largest cross-sectional area, it has the lowest pressure of all the blood vessels
What causes bruising?
What are Veins? What enables them to push blood up against gravity to return blood to the heart?
- carries blood TOWARDS the heart
- skeletal muscles contract to squeeze veins & propel blood up against gravity and to the heart
- one-way valves line veins in order to help propel blood against gravity and prevent backflow
What are the 3 layers of blood vessels?
- tunica intima
- tunica media
- tunica externa
What is Atherosclerosis?
build up of fatty plaques in arteries → decreased O2 transport to tissues → can cause clots and strokes
List the flow of blood through the lungs and heart chambers
Left Ventricle → Aorta (artery) → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Vena Cava (veins) → Right Atrium → Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Artery → Lungs to pick up more O2
→ Pulmonary Vein carries oxygenated blood back to heart to be pumped
What is the Tricuspid Valve?
separates right atrium and ventricle, prevents backflow of blood to atrium when ventricles contract
What is the Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve?
separates the left atrium and ventricle, prevents backflow of blood to atrium when venctricles contract
What is the Pulmonary Valve?
separates the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery (that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs)
What is the Aortic Valve?
separates the left ventricle and the aorta (carries oxygenated blood to tissues)
Why is blood pressure highest in the Aortic Arch and lowest in the Vena Cava?
Left venctricles must contract w/ great force to push the blood to the tissues so blood pressure is highest in the aortic arch. However, blood pressure decreases by the time it reaches the Vena Cava
Arrange the following items in order of decreasing vascular resistance:
- venules & veins
Diameters/Areas of blood vessels can affect their vascular resistance (greater area → less resistance)
- Arterioles (smallest diamater)
- Venules & Veins (largest diameter)
Why does backflow of blood in the heart occur when valves are absent?
Because contraction of ventricles increase the pressure of blood in ventricles, which makes it want to flow back into the atria (lower pressure) but valves prevent this
What is the flow of the electrical system that allows for atria & ventricles to contract?
SA node (pacemaker cells) → both Atria contract → AV node → Bundle of His → Purkinje Fibers → both Ventricles contract
What enables all the cardiac muscles to contract simultaneously?
gap junctions between the cardiac muscle cells, which are located in intercalated discs
- allows ions to pass through neighboring cells directly, which spreads depolarization and allows cardiac muscles to contract simultaneously
What are Intercalated Discs?
- located between cardiac muscle cells
- contain gap junctions that allow for simultaneous contraction of all cardiac muscle cells
What is the role of the Heme group in hemoglobin?
Contains Fe+2 that binds oxygen
What is cooperative binding to hemoglobin?
Binding of one O2 to hemoglobin increases affinity of hemoblogin for successive O2, facilitating successive binding of O2 to hemoglobin
What is the T and R state/conformation of hemoglobin and how does this affect O2 affinity?
T state = Taut state
- low affinity for O2
- favored at low pO2 (at tissues)
- at tissues to allow Hb to release O2 to tissues
R state = Relaxed state
- high affinity for O2
- favored at high pO2 (at lungs)
- at lungs to pick up O2
At low pO2, which conformation (T or R) does hemoglobin take?
At low pO2 (at tissues), hemoglobin exists in T-state, which has LOW affinity for O2
Explain the Hemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation Curve in terms of pO2 and conformation of hemoglobin
At low pO2 (at tissues), Hb is in T-state, has low affinity for O2, O2 dissociates from Hb
At high pO2 (at lungs), Hb is in R-state, has high affinity for O2, loads up on o2
What factors shift the Hemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation Curve to the RIGHT? What does this mean for O2 affinity to hemoglobin?
↑ 2,3-BPG (product of glycolysis)
↓ pH (more CO2)
O2 affinity to hemoglobin is decreased, so that hemoglobin can release O2 to the tissues
What factors shift the Hemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation Curve to the LEFT? What does this mean for O2 affinity to hemoglobin?
↓ 2,3-BPG (product of glycolysis)
↑ pH (less CO2)
O2 affinity to hemoglobin is increased, so that hemoglobin can pick up more O2 at the lungs
What is the Bohr Effect?
Low pH or high CO2 causes right-shift in oxygen dissociation curve, which lowers Hb affinity for O2, so that it can release more O2 to the active tissues
What is 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG)?
by-product of glycolysis
↑ 2,3-BPG means lower O2-Hb affinity
- usually at the tissues bc it uses up O2 to undergo aerobic respiration
Fetal hemoglobin-oxygen curve is (left/right) shifted. What does this mean in terms of affinity of O2 to fetal hemoglobin?
Fetal hemoglobin-oxygen curve is left-shifted. This means that fetal hemoglobin has higher affinity to O2 so that it can "steal" O2 from mother's hemoglobin
What is Sickle Cell Anemia? What causes it? Why is this condition life-threatening?
- mutation of Glutamate → Valine
- sickled-shape RBCs that impairs O2 transfer and can cause blockades in the vessels, leading to strokes
What is Myoglobin?
single heme group (one subunit)
- exists in skeletal muscles
- has higher affinity for O2 so that it can steal O2 from hemoglobin at the tissues
- does NOT undergo cooperative binding (bc it only has one subunit)
Compare Myoglobin-O2 curve to that of Hemoglobin-O2. What does this mean in terms of affinity or O2 for Myoglobin and why is this important?
Myglobin-O2 curve is more left-shifted, meaning myglobin has higher affinity for O2, which is important bc actively working skeletal muscles contain myoglobin that must steal O2 from hemoglobin
Why does fetal hemoglobin have lower affinity for 2,3-BPG?
Fetal hemoglobin has higher affinity for O2, making it have lower affinity for 2,3-BPG
Erythrocytes are more vulnerable to sickle cell anemia when concentrations of T-state hemoglobin are high. Sickle cell crisis is likely induced by:
- acidosis or alkalosis?
- what type of exercise?
- hyperoxia or hypoxia?
T-state hemoglobin has decreased affinity for O2
- Acidosis = [H+] high, which occurs around tissues that are actively respiring, Hb at tissues are in T-conformation
- Intense exercise = breathing really fast, producing lots of CO2, [H+] increases, promotes T-state
- Hypoxia bc low pO2 favors T-state
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